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element a unique substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances through physical or chemical processes.
chemical symbol a one- or two-letter representation of an element. The first letter is always uppercase. If there is a second letter, it is lowercase.
compound a pure substance that is a chemical combination of two or more elements in a specific ratio
chemical formula a combination of element symbols and numbers representing the composition of a chemical compound.
phase the physical form of matter such as the solid, liquid, or gaseous state
aqueous solution a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent
chemical change (chemical reaction) a transformation that alters the composition of one or more substances such as that one or more new substances with new properties are produced
law of conservation of mass the scientific law that states that mass cannot be gained or lost in a chemical reaction and that matter cannot be created or destroyed
reactivity the tendency of an element or compound to combine chemically with other substances, as well as the ease or speed of the reaction
atomic mass the mass of a single atom (or isotope) of an element
atomic mass units (amu) the unit used for expressing atomic mass.
atomic number the consecutive whole numbers associated with the elements on the periodic table. The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the atomic nucleus of an element.
group a vertical column on the periodic table, also called a family. Elements in a group have similar properties.
alkali metal the elements in Group 1A on the periodic table
alkaline earth metal the elements in Group 2A on the periodic table
halogen the elements in Group 7A on the periodic table
noble gas an element in Group 8A on the periodic table and are known for not being reactive
period the elements in a horizontal row on the periodic table
main group elements the elements in Groups 1A to 7A on the periodic table
transition elements the elements in 1B to 8B on the periodic table
lanthanides a series of elements that follow lanthanum in Period 6 of the periodic table; they are typically placed separately at the bottom of the periodic table.
actinides a series of elements that follow actinium in Period 7 of the periodic table and that are typically placed separately at the bottom of the periodic table
metal an element that is generally shiny and malleable and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity, and are located to the left of the stair-step line on the periodic table
nonmetal an element that does not exhibit metallic properties, are often gases or brittle solids at room temperature, and are poor conductors of electricity and heat and are located to the right of the stair-step line on the periodic table
metalloid an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals, and are located along the stair-step line of the periodic table
average atomic mass the weighted average of the mass of the isotopes of an element
Created by: lpgullett