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BJU Chemistry Ch 19

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 19

addition polymer A polymer that forms when monomers containing carbon-carbon double (or triple) bonds open their bonds and create new single bonds available for the addition of new monomers; also called chain-growth polymers.
branched polymer An addition polymer with side chains that make the molecule less rigid, such as in low-density polyethylene.
buckyball The most common and stable of the fullerene molecules; consists of 60 carbon atoms that are arranged in the shape of a soccer ball (20 hexagons and 12 pentagons).
carbon nanotube A nanoscopic fullerene tube made of pure carbon atoms that has highly beneficial uses in technology. It was originally called a buckytube.
ceramic-based composite One of the three general categories of advanced ceramics formulated to provide new or enhanced ceramic properties - high strength and high temperature tolerance. It may be formed from oxide and nonoxide ceramic combinations.
ceramics Nonmetallic and inorganic solid materials formed by shaping and firing a mixture until it hardens. They are crystalline in structure with regularly repeating unit cells.
condensation polymer A polymer formed by condensation reactions in which two molecules combine, releasing a smaller molecule (usually water) as the bond forms.
copolymer A polymer formed by bonding two or more different monomers.
cross-linked polymer An addition polymer that is bonded at various positions to nearby polymer molecules, resulting in a stronger molecule such as cross-linked polyethylene; also called a thermoset.
doping The process of adding or removing valence electrons in the crystal lattice of a semiconducting element.
elastomer A polymer that exhibits rubbery or elastic behavior after formation.
fullerene A class of carbon molecules in which carbon atoms are arranged in the form of a hollow sphere or cylinder.
linear polymer An addition polymer without branches or cross-linking. Its structure causes increased rigidity, such as in high-density polyethylene.
monomer A simple molecule that can link with other monomers to form very large molecules called polymers.
nanotechnology The branch of science that combines the disciplines of chemistry, engineering, and materials science to manipulate atomic or molecular substances for the purpose of creating useful products to benefit mankind.
n-type semiconductor A semiconductor that has more electrons than holes, creating a negative charge in a crystal lattice.
plastic Polymers that can be formed into different shapes, usually when heated or pressurized.
p-type semiconductor A semiconductor that has more holes than electrons, creating a positive charge in a crystal lattice.
sol-gel process A method that combines liquid and solid colloids to produce advanced ceramics that are simple, economic, and of high quality.
thermoplastic polymer A plastic that can be heated and then reshaped into other forms.
thermosetting polymer A plastic that is created by irreversible chemical reactions that make it difficult or impossible to melt and reshape; also called a thermoset.
vulcanization A chemical reaction in which natural rubber is heated with sulfur to high temperatures, causing the formation of cross links within the substance and strengthening the rubber for practical purposes.
Created by: heidio