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BJU Chemistry Ch 18

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 18

TermDefinition
addition reaction An organic reaction in which the double or triple bonds in a reactant break and re-form with another atom or group of atoms.
alcohol An organic compound that has a covalently bonded OH functional group attached to an alkyl group.
aldehyde An organic compound of the general form R-C=O that has a aldehyde group in its structure.
aliphatic compound A straight-chain compound or a cyclic compound formed from a straight-chain compound.
alkane A straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds.
alkene A straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon that contains at least one double bond.
alkyl group An alkane with one hydrogen atom missing.
alkyl halide An organic compound that contains an alkyl group and a halogen as a functional group.
alkyne A straight-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon that contains at least one triple bond.
amide An organic compound of the general form O II R - C - NH 2 in which an amine takes the place of a hydroxyl group in a carboxylic acid.
amine An organic compound that contains ammonia (NH 3) as its parent molecule. Hydrogen atoms are often replaced by other atoms or molecules.
amino acid The building block of a protein; a carboxylic acid containing an amine group.
aromatic compound A compound that contains a benzene ring or has a structure resembling benzene's ring structure, including a cloud of delocalized electrons.
aryl group (R-X group) An aromatic compound with one hydrogen atom missing.
aryl halide An organic compound that contains an aryl group and a halogen as a functional group.
carbohydrate A polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone; a compound that can be hydrolyzed to form a polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone.
carbonyl group (C=O group) A carbon atom with a doubly bonded oxygen atom attached to it.
carboxyl group (COOH group) A carbon atom with a doubly bonded oxygen atom and hydroxide group attached to it.
carboxylic acid An organic compound of the general from OH I R - C = O that has a carboxyl group in its structure.
condensation reaction An organic reaction in which two compounds combine to produce water molecules; the opposite of hydrolysis.
cyclic aliphatic compound An organic compound that has carbon chains bonded in ring shapes.
delocalized electron An electron that can move between several different bonds; in benzene, an electron that can move throughout circular spaces above and below the plane of bonded nuclei.
dipeptide A molecule made of two amino acids joined by a peptide bond.
disaccharide A carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharide units.
ester An organic compound of the general form O II R - C - O - R' in which a hydrogen atom in the carboxyl group is replaced with an alkyl group.
esterification A condensation reaction that produces an ester when a carboxylic acid combines with an alcohol.
ether (R-O-R' group) An organic compound in which an oxygen atom links two alkyl groups.
fat A lipid formed from a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids (carboxylic acids) in which the carbon chains are saturated. It is solid at room temperature.
fatty acid A carboxylic acid that has a carbon chain 12-20 carbon atoms long. This type of acid is obtained by the hydrolysis of animal fat or vegetable oils.
functional group An atom or group of atoms that can substitute for hydrogen in a hydrocarbon and that imparts characteristic chemical properties to that hydrocarbon.
glycerol A three-carbon molecule with three -OH groups that combines with fatty acids to form a fat or oil.
hydrocarbon An organic, nonpolar compound containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms.
isomer A compound that has the same formula but a different structure than another compound.
ketone An organic compound of the general form O II R - C - R' that has a carbonyl group in the middle of the carbon chain.
lipid A member of the large class of organic molecules that are insoluble in water and store energy in living things.
monosaccharide A three- to six-carbon carbohydrate with attached hydroxyl groups and either an aldehyde or a ketone group that cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler compounds; a simple sugar such as glucose.
nucleic acid A large molecule that stores and translates genetic information in living cells and consists of nucleotides.
nucleotide The "building block" of a nucleic acid like DNA or RNA. It is made of a sugar unit, a phosphate group, and nitrogen-containing base. They are adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
oil A lipid formed from a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids (carboxylic acids) in which the carbon chains are unsaturated. It is liquid at room temperature.
organic compound A covalently bonded carbon compound, with the exception of carbonates, carbon oxides, and carbides. These molecules are associated with the chemistry of life.
peptide bond The bond between an amine group of one amino acid and a carboxyl group of another.
polyhydroxy alcohol An alcohol that contains more than one OH group.
polymer A substance produced by a condensation reaction. It consists of a long chain of repeating monomer structural units.
polypeptide A molecule of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
polysaccharide A carbohydrate composed of many monosaccharide units.
protein A complex polymer structure of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds that has a molecular weight greater than 5000 u.
saturated Pertaining to a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute possible at a given set of conditions; pertaining to an organic compound such as a fat that contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms (4) and has no double or triple bonds.
steroid A lipid that contains a set of three six-carbon rings and one five-carbon ring, such as cholesterol.
substitution reaction An organic reaction in which one atom or group replaces another atom or group in a molecule.
unsaturated A solution that contains less than the max amt. of solute at a given set of conditions; an organic compound such as an oil that contains less than the max possible # of hydrogen atoms because it has at least 1 double or triple bond between its carbon atom
Created by: heidio
 

 



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