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BJU Chemistry Ch 17

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 17

TermDefinition
anode The electrode at which oxidation occurs during an electrochemical reaction; the electrode that attracts anions in electrolytic cells and repels electrons in voltaic cells.
battery One or more voltaic cells arranged to produce electricity.
cathode The electrode at which reduction occurs during an electrochemical reaction; the electrode that attracts cations in electrolytic cells and attracts electrons in voltaic cells.
electrochemical cell An apparatus consisting of two electrical contacts (electrodes ) that are immersed in an electrolyte solution and joined by a wire.
electrochemistry The field of chemistry that involves redox reactions and electricity; the interactions between chemical and electrical phenomena.
electrode A conductor of electricity that allows a current to enter or leave an electrolytic cell (or other apparatus).
electrolysis A process that uses electricity to force an otherwise nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur in an electrochemical cell; the separation of a compound into simpler substances by an electrical current.
electrolyte A substance that releases ions and conducts electricity when it dissolves in water.
electrolytic cell A type of electrochemical cell that uses electricity to produce a chemical reaction.
electroplating An electrochemical process in which metallic ions of a usually more expensive metal coat a cheaper metal using an electrical current.
fuel cell A class of highly efficient batteries that operate with a continuous supply of reactants for fuel from an external source from which the products are continually removed.
nonelectrolyte A substance that will not conduct electricity when melted or dissolved because it does not release ions.
oxidation A chemical reaction in which an atom's electrons are lost and its oxidation number increases.
oxidation-reduction reaction Any chemical reaction in which electrons transfer or shift; also called a redox reaction. The shift of electrons is shown by changes in oxidation numbers.
oxidizing agent The atom or ion that receives electrons during a redox reaction; the substance that causes other substances to be oxidized; the substance that is reduced.
reducing agent An atom or ion that donates electrons during a redox reaction; the substance that causes other substances to be reduced; the substance that is oxidized.
reduction A chemical process in which an atom gains electrons and decreases its oxidation number.
salt bridge A tube of electrolytic gel that connects the two half-cells of a voltaic cell and allows the flow of ions.
voltaic cell A type of electrochemical cell that uses a spontaneous redox reaction to produce electricity.
Created by: heidio