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BJU Chemistry Ch 16

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 16

TermDefinition
acidic solution A solution with more H 3 O+ ions than OH- ions, resulting in a pH less than 7.
acid-ionization constant Related to the ionization constant of water, it is the value that describes the extent of the forward equilibrium reaction in the formation of the hydronium ion.
amphoteric A substance that can act as either a Bronsted-Lowry acid or base.
Arrhenius acid A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.
Arrhenius base A substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.
base-ionization constant Related to the ionization constant of water, the value that describes the extent of the forward equilibrium reaction in the formation of the hydroxide ion.
basic solution A solution with fewer H 3 O+ ions than OH- ions, resulting in a pH greater than 7; also called an alkaline solution.
Bronsted-Lowry acid A substance that donates protons.
Bronsted-Lowry base A substance that accepts protons.
buffer A solution that resists changes in pH when a moderate amount of either an acid or base is added.
conjugate acid The structure formed when a base is protonated.
conjugate base The structure formed when an acid has donated a proton.
conjugate pair Two particles that differ from each other by only a proton (a hydrogen ion).
deprotonation The process of losing a proton.
diprotic An acid that can donate two protons.
electrolyte A substance that releases ions and conducts electricity when it dissolves in water.
end point The point in a titration at which some change in a property of the solution is detected.
equivalence point The point in a titration at which an equivalent amount of titrant has been added. The number of H 3 O+ ions equals the number of OH- ions.
indicator A substance that changes color when the pH of a solution changes.
ionization constant of water In self-ionization, the product of the concentrations of the hydronium ion (H 3 O+) and the hydroxide ion (OH-); 1.0 x 10 -14 at 25 °C; also called the dissociation constant of water.
Lewis acid Any substance that can accept a pair of electrons.
Lewis base Any substance that can donate a pair of electrons.
monoprotic An acid that can donate only one proton.
neutralization reaction The reaction of an acid and a base to produce a neutral solution (pH=7) of water and a salt.
neutral solution A solution with equal numbers of H 3 O+ and OH- ions; pH=7.
pH A measure of the hydronium ion (H 3 O+) concentration. It is the negative logarithm of the molar H 3 O+ ion concentration: pH=-log (H 3 O+).
pOH A measure of the hydroxide ion (OH-) concentration. It is the negative logarithm of the molar OH- ion concentration: pOH=-log (OH-).
polyprotic An acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule.
protonation The process of gaining a proton.
salt An ionic compound formed from the cation of a base and the anion of an acid.
self-ionization of water A process in an acid-base reaction in which one molecule donates a proton to another molecule of the same substance; also called auto-ionization or autoprotolysis.
strong acid A substance that readily gives up protons and ionizes completely in an aqueous solution.
strong base A substance that readily accepts protons.
titration A controlled reaction (often neutralization) conducted to measure the capacity of a solution of unknown concentration to react with one of known concentration.
titration curve A graph that plots the pH change of a solution versus the volume of added acids or bases.
transition interval An indicator's range of pH values over which a color change occurs.
triprotic An acid that can donate three protons.
weak acid A substance that does not give up protons easily and does not ionize completely in an aqueous solution; a weak electrolyte.
week base A substance that is a poor proton acceptor and does not ionize completely in an aqueous solution; a weak electrolyte.
Created by: heidio
 

 



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