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BJU Chemistry Ch 13

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 13

calorimeter An insulated container in which a thermometer detects the temperature change that occurs during a chemical reaction to calculate the transfer of thermal energy.
enthalpy (H) The energy content of a thermodynamic system at a constant pressure.
enthalpy of reaction The change in enthalpy that occurs during a reaction. It is equal to the difference between the enthalpy of the products and the enthalpy of the reactants.
entropy The measure of the dispersal of energy in a system; the net decrease of usable energy in a system for a given temperature and quantity of matter.
free energy (G) A substance's ability to do work, involving both the enthalpy and entropy of a substance; also called Gibbs free energy.
free-energy change The difference between the free energy of the products and the free energy of the reactants; △G = △H - t△S. If △G is negative for a process, the process is energetically favorable, or spontaneous.
Hess's law The law that the enthalpy change of a reaction equals the sum of the enthalpy changes for each step of the reaction.
latent heat The flow of thermal energy that produces a phase change while no temperature change is observed.
molar enthalphy of fusion The quantity of thermal energy required to melt one mole of a solid to a liquid with no temperature change; also called the heat of fusion. It is usually expressed in units of kilojoules per mole.
molar enthalpy of vaporization The quantity of thermal energy required to convert one mole of a liquid at its boiling point to its vapor at the same temperature; also called the heat of vaporization. It is usually expressed in units of kilojoules per mole.
sensible heat Thermal energy that, when applied to a substance, produces a temperature change in the substance.
specific heat The amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 °C.
standard molar enthalpy of combustion The energy released as heat by the complete burning of one mole of a substance at standard conditions.
standard molar enthalpy of formation The enthalpy change for the reaction that produces one mole of a compound in its standard state from its elements in their standard states; also called the heat of formation.
standard state In thermodynamics, 25 °C (298 K) and 1 atm of pressure.
thermochemical equation A chemical equation that shows the reactants, products, and amount of energy that is released or absorbed as heat.
thermochemistry The branch of science that studies the transfer of energy during chemical reactions or phase changes.
Created by: heidio