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BJU Chemistry Ch 12

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 12

TermDefinition
boiling-point elevation A raised boiling point of a solvent caused by the presence of solute particles.
Brownian motion The random, chaotic movements of microscopic particles.
colligative property A physical property of a solution that depends only on the number of solute particles present without regard to type.
colloid A mixture of small particles (between 1 and 1000 nm in size) that remain dispersed in a medium.
concentration A measure of the number of solute particles in a certain volume or mass of the solvent, or of the solution itself.
dispersed phase In a colloidal mixture, the phase in which the particles are spread out.
dispersing medium The medium in a colloidal mixture that separates the dispersed phase.
dissociation A type of solvation in which an ionic compound forms ions when it dissolves in a solvent.
dynamic equilibrium A chemical equilibrium in which two or more opposing events occur at the same rate but result in no net change.
effervescence The escape of a gas from a liquid-gas solution.
enthalpy (heat) of solution The net energy change during the dissolving process. It is expressed in kJ/mol.
freezing-point depression A reduction in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of solute particles.
Henry's law The gas law that states that the solubility of gases is directly proportional to the partial pressures of the gases above the solution.
hydration A type of solvation in which water molecules surround and interact with solute particles.
immiscible Pertaining to two liquids that are not soluble in each other.
ionization A type of solvation in which a covalent compound forms ions when it dissolves in a solvent.
miscible Pertaining to two liquids that are completely soluble in each other.
molal boiling-point constant A number that relates the change in boiling point of a particular solvent to the concentration of solute particles.
molal freezing-point constant A number that relates the change in freezing point of a particular solvent to the concentration of solute particles.
molality A quantitative measure of concentration equal to the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent; m = mol solute/kg solvent.
molarity The most common quantitative measure of concentration equal to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution; M = mol solute/L solution.
osmosis The diffusion of pure solvent molecules, such as water, through a semipermeable membrane.
osmotic pressure The amount of pressure required to resist osmosis.
percent by mass A quantitative measure of concentration in which the mass of the solute is compared to the mass of the solution. It equals the mass of solute/mass of solution x 100%.
percent by volume A quantitative measure of concentration in which the volume of the solute is compared to the volume of the solution. It equals the volume of solute/volume of solution x 100%.
saturated Pertaining to a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute possible at a given set of conditions; pertaining to an organic compound such as a fat that contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms (4) and has no double or triple bonds.
solubility The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a specific solvent under specific conditions, such as temperature and pressure.
solute The minority substance in a solution; the substance that is dissolved.
solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
solvation The process in which solvent particles surround and interact with solutes; the dissolving process in solid-in-liquid solutions. In an aqueous solution this is called hydration.
solvent The most abundant substance in a solution; the substance that does the dissolving.
supersaturation The condition of a solution that contains more dissolved solute than it does at equilibrium.
Tyndall effect The scattering of light by particles in a colloid.
unsaturated A solution that contains less than the maximum amt. of solute at a given set of conditions.
Created by: heidio