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BJU Chemistry Ch 11

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 11

adhesion The attraction between the particles of a liquid and the particles of other materials.
allotrope One of two or more forms of a polymorphous element that exists in the same physical state.
allotropic element Pure elements that are polymorphous.
amorphous solid A solid in which the particles occur in random positions with no orderly pattern.
boiling A physical change from the liquid state to the gaseous state caused by the application of heat that occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the prevailing atmospheric pressure.
boiling point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the applied atmospheric pressure.
capillary action The movement of a liquid up a narrow tube caused by adhesion between molecules in the walls of the tube and the molecules of the liquid.
cohesion The attraction between the particles of a liquid.
condensation A physical change from the gaseous state to the liquid state.
critical pressure The pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature.
critical temperature The highest temperature at which a gas can be liquefied. Each gas has its own characteristic critical temperature.
crystal lattice An extensive three-dimensional structure that represents the regular pattern of atoms or ions.
crystalline solid A solid in which particles occur in a regular repeating pattern.
deposition A physical change directly from the gaseous state to the solid state.
dipole-dipole force An intermolecular force; the attraction of the positive end of one polar molecule to the negative end of another polar molecule.
dispersion force An electrostatic attraction that arises between atoms or molecules because of the presence of instantaneous and induced temporary dipoles. It is the only intermolecular force acting on nonpolar molecules.
distillation A technique used to separate a mixture by evaporating its components at their boiling points and then condensing and collecting the vapors.
dynamic equilibrium A chemical equilibrium in which two or more opposing events occur at the same rate but result in no net change.
evaporation A physical change from the liquid state to the gaseous state that occurs at the surface of a liquid when the temperature is between the substance's freezing and boiling points.
hydrogen bond A special dipole-dipole force involving hydrogen and a highly electronegative element (fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen).
intermolecular force An electrostatic attraction between molecules. It is much weaker than the bonds that form within molecules.
lattice energy The energy released when gaseous particles form crystals. It is expressed as a negative number.
melting point The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid at 1 atm; the same temperature as the freezing point for pure solids.
meniscus The curved upper surface of a column of liquid that results from intermolecular attractions within the liquid and between the liquid and its container.
normal boiling point The temperature at which the vapor pressure equals 760 torr.
phase diagram A diagram summarizing the temperature and pressure conditions under which a pure substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas.
polymorphous A substance (either an element or a compound) that can occur in more than one type of crystalline form.
sublimation A physical change from the solid state directly to the gaseous state.
surface tension The elastic "skin" that forms the surface of liquids. It is produced by the imbalance of intermolecular forces on the surface of a liquid.
surfactant A substance added to a liquid that acts to reduce the surface tension of that liquid by interfering with hydrogen bonds.
triple point The temperature and pressure at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous states of a substance exist in equilibrium.
unit cell The basic building block for any type of crystal; the section of a crystal lattice that contains one formula unit of the compound or one repeating segment of the overall lattice structure.
vaporization A physical change from the liquid state to the vapor or gaseous state.
vapor pressure Th pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its solid or liquid state at a specified temperature.
viscosity The ability of a liquid to resist flow; the amount of internal resistance.
Created by: heidio