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BJU Chemistry Ch 10

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 10

atmosphere (atm) A unit of pressure equal to the normal atmospheric pressure at sea level.
Avogadro's law A law of gas behavior stating that the volume of a gas, maintained at a constant temperature and pressure, is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas.
barometer An apparatus that measures atmospheric pressure by allowing it to support a column of liquid.
Boyle's law A gas law stating that the volume of a fixed quantity of a confined gas is inversely proportional to its pressure when its temperature is held constant (PV=k).
Charles's law A gas law stating that when the pressure on a sample of dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume are directly proportional (V/T=k).
combined gas law A gas law that combines Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Gay-Lussac's law, where the temperature pressure, and volume are constant; P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2.
compressibility The ability of a substance (usually a gas) to decrease its volume under pressure.
Dalton's law of partial pressures A gas law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the constituent gases; P(total) = P1 + P2 + P3 ... + P(N),
diffusion The spontaneous, uniform spreading and mixing of particles caused by particle motion.
effusion A process in which gas particles pass through a tiny opening into an evacuated chamber or space.
expansibility The limitless ability of a gas to expand in an environment of lower pressure.
fluid A substance that can flow to take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas.
Gay-Lussac's law A gas law stating that the pressure of a confined gas is directly proportional to temperature in kelvins, provided that its volume is held constant (P/T = k).
Graham's law of effusion The gas law that states that the rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.
ideal gas A hypothetical gas whose behavior follows the kinetic-molecular theory (the ideal gas law) exactly.
ideal gas law A gas law that relates pressure, volume, temperature, and amount for an ideal gas (PV = nRT).
law of combining volumes A gas law stating that the volumes of reacting gases and their gaseous products are expressed in ratios of small whole numbers (moles of reactants to moles of products) under equivalent conditions.
millimeter of mercury (mm Hg) A unit of pressure derived from normal atmospheric pressure at sea level that can support a 760 mm high column of Hg; 1 mm Hg=1 torr.
molar volume The volume that a mole of gas occupies if it is at standard temperature (0°C) and pressure (1 atm); 1 mole of gas at STP=22.4 L.
pascal (Pa) The SI unit of pressure, defined as a force of one newton exerted on an area of one square meter.
permeability A qualitative or quantitative measure of how easily a fluid can move through the spaces between particles in a substance.
pound per square inch (psi) A unit of pressure equal to 6.895 x 10 3 Pa or 51.71 torr.
pressure Force exerted perpendicularly per unit of area. Units of pressure include newtons per square meter (or pascals), torr, and pounds per square inch.
standard temperature and pressure (STP) A value used when measuring gases. Standard temperature is 0°C or 273 K, and standard pressure is 760 torr, 101 325 Pa, or 1 atm.
torr A unit of pressure derived from normal atmospheric pressure at sea level that can support a 760 mm high column of Hg; 1 mm Hg=1 torr.
universal gas constant (R) The constant that relates the units of pressure, volume, temperature, and quantity. The units of R in the ideal gas law (R = PV/nT) depend on the units used for P, V, n, and T.
vapor pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its solid or liquid state at a specified temperature.
Created by: heidio