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BJU Chemistry Ch 5

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 5

TermDefinition
actinide series The inner transition metals in the periodic table that follow actinium, from thorium to lawrencium.
alkali metal A Group 1 (1A) metal. It has one valence electron.
alkaline-earth metal A Group 2 (2A) metal. It has two valence electrons.
atomic radius The distance from the center of an atom's nucleus to its outermost energy level. It is measured using x-ray diffraction.
descriptive chemistry The study of elements and the compounds they form that stresses identification of properties rather than theoretical calculations.
electron affinity The amount of energy required or released when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion.
electronegativity (EN) A measure of the tendency of bonded atoms to attract electrons. It is designated by a number with a maximum value of 4.0.
family A vertical column of elements in the periodic table with similar physical and chemical properties.
first ionization energy The minimum amount of energy required to remove the first electron from the outermost shell of a single neutral atom in its gaseous state.
halogen A Group 17 (7A) element. It has seven valence electrons, making it chemically reactive.
hydrocarbon An organic, nonpolar compound containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms.
inner transition metal A member of the lanthanide or actinide series.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) The body responsible for the standardization of chemical nomenclature and usage.
lanthanide series The inner transition metals in the periodic table that follow lanthanum, from cerium to lutetium.
metal An element left of the heavy stair-step line in the periodic table. It is an element that is typically solid, malleable, ductile, and lustrous; conducts electricity and heat well; and that forms positive ions when it gives away its few valence electrons.
metalloid An element whose properties lie between those of metals and nonmetals; an element found touching the heavy stair-step line in the periodic table.
noble gas A Group 18 (8A) element. It has a full outer energy level, making it very stable and essentially inert.
nonmetal An element right of, but not touching, the heavy stair-step line in the periodic table. It is generally a gas or a soft, crumbly solid that is nonductile, nonmalleable, and an insulator.
North American convention A combination of arabic numerals and letters placed above each column to indicate the valence electron structure of the elements in each column.
oxide A binary compound in which the oxidation number of oxygen is -2.
period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; also called a series.
periodic law The law stating that the properties of elements vary with their atomic numbers in a periodic way.
periodic table A table of the chemical elements arranged to display their periodic properties in relation to their atomic numbers.
post-transition metal A metal found in Groups 13-16 in the periodic table.
representative group Elements in the s and p blocks of the periodic table. These groups are designated with an A after the group number in the North American convention.
series A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; also called a series.
sulfide A binary compound in which the oxidation number of sulfur is -2.
transition metal An element in the d block groups (3-12) of the periodic table.
transuranium element An element with an atomic number higher than 92.
Created by: heidio