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BJU Chemistry Ch 4

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 4

TermDefinition
alpha particle The nucleus of the helium atom (two protons, two neutrons) produced as the by-product of a nuclear decay process.
anion A negatively charged ion.
atom A neutral particle with a centrally located nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, with electrons around it; the smallest particle that makes up an element and that is capable of chemical interactions.
atomic number (Z) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Aufbau principle The principle that the electron configuration of an atom builds on those of lower atomic number. The electrons fill the sublevels in the order given by the diagonal rule.
azimuthal quantum number (l) The number that defines the symmetrical shapes that are arranged around the nucleus and that electrons may be found in; sometimes called the sublevel quantum number.
cathode rays The stream of electrons emitted from the cathode in a cathode-ray tube.
cation A positively charged ion.
continuous spectrum A complete visual spectrum with no frequency gaps emitted only by an ideal luminous object.
de Broglie's hypothesis The concept that if waves can behave like particles, then particles can also behave like waves.
electron A particle with a -1 charge and a mass of 9.11 x 10 -31 kg found orbiting the nucleus in an atom.
electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom: a number indicates the principal energy level, a letter indicates the sublevel, and a superscript denotes the number of electrons contained within the sublevel.
electron dot notation A chemical symbol with surrounding dots representing the valence electrons of an atom.
electron-spin quantum number The number that describes the two possible "spin" states of a pair of electrons in an orbital.
ground state An atom's lowest energy state.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle The principal that it is impossible to know both the energy or momentum (velocity) and the exact position of an electron at the same time.
Hund's rule The rule stating that electrons fill a sublevel by placing a single electron in each orbital before adding a second electron to any orbital.
isotope One of two or more atoms of the same element with the same number of protons (atomic number) but with different numbers of neutrons.
isotopic notation A naming convention used to distinguish between different isotopes of elements. It includes the element's symbol, atomic number, and mass number and specifies the exact composition of an atom.
law of definite composition A law stating that every compound is formed of elements combined in mass ratios that are unique for that compound.
line spectrum A spectrum showing only certain colors or wavelengths of light.
magnetic quantum number (m) The number that defines the spatial orientation of the orbitals within a sublevel; sometimes called the orbital quantum number.
mass number (A) A whole number equal to the sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom.
neutron (n) A neutral particle in an atom's nucleus. It has a mass of 1.675 x 10 -27 kg, slightly greater than the mass of a proton.
nucleus The dense central part of an atom made up of protons and neutrons. It contains virtually all the atom's mass but only a small portion of its volume.
orbital A three-dimensional region of space around a nucleus in which as many as two electrons are likely to be found. Orbitals make up sublevels.
orbital notation An expression that represents the principal energy levels, sublevels, and orbitals for all the electrons in an atom using dashes and half arrows.
Pauli exclusion principle The rule that an orbital can hold only two electrons with opposite spin, resulting in a unique set of four quantum numbers for every electron in an atom.
photon A packet of electromagnetic energy modeled as a particle that transmits electromagnetic force in the standard model of matter.
principal energy level A region around the nucleus containing a specified group of electrons in sublevels and orbitals.
principal quantum number (n) The number indicating the main or principal energy level in which an electron is found.
proton A particle in an atom's nucleus with a +1 charge and mass of 1.673 x 10 -27 kg.
quantized Having to do with quantities in which there are only separate, discrete values allowed.
quantum number Four numbers that describe the location of an electron in an atom.
sublevel A portion of a principal energy level made up of one or more orbitals.
unified atomic mass unit (u or amu) A small unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of the nucleus of a carbon-12 atom, or approximately the same size as a proton or a neutron. This unit is used to represent the mass of atoms and molecules.
valence electron One of the electrons usually found in the highest or outermost energy level of a neutral atom. They are loosely bound and are responsible for an atom's chemical behavior.
Created by: heidio