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BJU Chemistry Ch 2

Bob Jones Chemistry - Chapter 2

TermDefinition
absolute zero The theoretical temperature at which all particle motion ceases. It is the coldest temperature possible.
atom A neutral particle with a centrally located nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, with electrons around it; the smallest particle that makes up an element and that is capable of chemical interactions.
Bose-Einstein condensate The state of matter that exists at temperature close to absolute zero.
calorie The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 ° C.
Celsius scale A temperature scale, proposed by Anders Celsius, that divides the range from the freezing point of water (0 ° C) to the boiling point of water (100 ° C) into 100 increments and labels absolute zero at -273.15 ° C.
chemical change A change in the identity of a material that results in a different material with a different composition and properties.
chemical formula Chemical symbols arranged to represent molecules or formula units that make up compounds. Formulas show both the identity and number of atoms from each element.
chemical property A property of matter that describes how one substance reacts in the presence of other substances or conditions.
chemical subscript A number written at the lower right of a chemical symbol, indicating the number of atoms or groups of atoms in a chemical formula.
chemical symbol A one-, two-, or three-letter representation of an element's name.
coefficient A number that appears in front of a chemical formula and indicates how many atoms, ions, molecules, or formula units are present.
compound A pure substance that consists of atoms of different elements chemically bonded together.
condensation A physical change from the gaseous state to the liquid state.
deposition A physical change directly from the gaseous state to the solid state. Examples include snowflakes and frost.
element A pure substance whose atoms all have the same atomic number and cannot be broken down by chemical processes into a more stable and simpler form. There are 118 elements.
endothermic Pertaining to a chemical process that absorbs heat energy and produces a positive change in enthalpy.
energy The ability to do work.
entropy The measure of the dispersal of energy in a system; the net decrease of usable energy in a system for a given temperature and quantity of matter.
exothermic Pertaining to a chemical process that releases heat energy and produces a negative change in enthalpy.
first law of thermodynamics The physical law stating that energy can be neither created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form into another.
freezing A physical change from the liquid state to the solid state.
gas A state of matter in which the particles have enough energy to overcome the attractive forces. It has no definite size or shape and is highly compressible.
heat A measurement of the total amount of thermal energy transferred from one substance to another. It is expressed in joules (J) or kilojoules (kJ).
heterogeneous A process involving substances in different phases.
homogeneous A mixture that contains only a single phase.
internal energy The sum of the potential and kinetic energies of an object's component particles.
ion A charged particle; an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons, producing an imbalance between the number of protons and electrons in the particle.
joule The SI unit of energy and work; equal to 1 kg m2/s2.
Kelvin scale A temperature scale that divides the range from the freezing point of water (273.15 K) to the boiling point of water (373.15 K) into 100 increments and labels absolute zero (0 K) as its zero point. It is the absolute scale.
kinetic-molecular theory A theory stating that the particles of matter are in constant motion, affecting the properties of matter.
kinetic energy The energy of motion; a form of mechanical energy.
law of conservation of mass-energy The physical law stating that during ordinary physical and chemical processes, mass is neither created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another; a corollary to the first law of thermodynamics.
liquid A state of matter in which particles have enough energy to partially overcome the attractive forces. It conforms to the shape of its container, has a fixed volume, and is nearly incompressible.
matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
melting A physical change from the solid state to the liquid state.
mixture A combination of two or more pure substances that can be separated by physical means.
molecule A distinct group of two or more atoms covalently bonded together.
physical change A change that alters the physical properties of a substance -such as state, shape, and size- but does not change it identity.
physical property Any property of matter that can be observed or measured without altering its chemical composition.
plasma A gas-like substance, formed at very high temperatures, that consists of high-energy ions. It is the most abundant form of matter in the universe.
pure substance A substance that is made up of only one kind of particle.
quark-gluon plasma A high-temperature state of matter that forms when nuclei collide with such energy that their protons and neutrons are broken down into a "soup" of elementary particles called quarks and gluons.
second law of thermodynamics The physical law that applies to natural processes unaffected by outside manipulation by any intelligence and states that during any energy transformation, some energy goes to an unusable form; also called the law of increasing entropy.
solid A state of matter in which the particles have relatively little energy, cannot overcome the attractive forces, and remain in fixed positions with set distances between them. It has a fixed volume and is relatively incompressible.
sublimation A physical change from the solid state directly to the gaseous state.
system A portion of the universe under study.
temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in matter (measured in degrees Celsius or in kelvins); the hotness or coldness of an object.
thermal energy The sum of the kinetic energies of the molecules or ions in matter.
thermodynamics The study of thermal energy, heat, and their useful applications.
third law of thermodynamics The physical law stating that it is impossible to reach absolute zero.
vaporization A physical change from the liquid state to the vapor or gaseous state.
Created by: heidio