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Chem. Sem. 2 - Boren

A review of concepts, equations, and skills for Semester 2 of Chemistry.

A measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules or atoms. temperature
A measure of the space occupied by a substance. volume
A measure of the average force per area applied on a surface by a substance's molecules. pressure
0 Kelvin. Also this is the temperature where all molecular motion stops. absolute zero
A measure of the disorder of a substance. entropy
A measure of the internal energy of a substance. enthalpy
Standard temperature and pressure. Specifically 0°C (or 273 K) and 1 atm (or 101.3 kPa). STP
The process of a gas or vapor undergoing a phase change to become a liquid. condensation
The process of a solid undergoing a phase change to become a gas or vapor. sublimation
The process of a liquid undergoing a phase change to become a gas or vapor. boiling (or evaporation)
Thermal energy that is transferred from one object or substance to another. heat
Heat transfer that occurs by direct physical contact (touching). conduction
Heat transfer that occurs through currents (usually in a gas or liquid) circulating warmer and cooler portions by rising and falling. convection
Heat transfer that occurs by infrared waves spreading out in all directions. It is the only form of heat transfer that can occur through a vacuum. radiation
A process that releases heat. The change in enthalpy is negative (ΔH = –). Examples: combustion of gasoline, condensation of water. exothermic
A process that absorbs heat. The change in enthalpy is positive (ΔH = +). Examples: boiling water, photosynthesis. endothermic
A space that contains no gas molecules or atoms of any kind. perfect vacuum
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1°C. specific heat, Cp
The state reached when the forward reaction rate is equal to the reverse reaction rate for substances in a closed system. chemical equilibrium
The principle by which an equilibrium will shift in a direction that minimizes a stress placed upon it (a change in concentration, temperature, pressure). Le Chatelier's principle
How fast the product of a chemical reaction is formed or the reactant is consumed. reaction rate
The energy hurdle that reactant molecules must overcome before they can react and form the product molecules. activation energy
A substance that is not consumed in a chemical reaction, but speeds up the reaction rate by lowering the activation energy. catalyst
The state of a molecule where it is halfway through the reaction process. It has a higher energy level than both the reactant and the product. activated complex (or transition state)
A substance that produces H⁺ (or H₃O⁺) ions in water. Arrhenius acid
A substance that produces OH⁻ ions in water. Arrhenius base
A hydronium ion. H⁺ (or H₃O⁺)
A hydroxide ion. OH⁻
A substance that can donate an H⁺ ion (a proton). Brønsted-Lowry acid
A substance that can accept an H⁺ ion (a proton). Brønsted-Lowry base
A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals to produce H₂ gas, and has a pH less than 7. acid
A substance that tastes bitter, is slippery, and has a pH greater than 7. base
A solution with a pH equal to 7. It has equal amounts of hydronium (H₃O⁺) and hydroxide (OH⁻) ions. neutral
The process where acids and bases are mixed and their excess H⁺ and OH⁻ ions react with each other to form H₂O. neutralization
A substance that causes the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere. These include carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and water vapor (H₂O). greenhouse gas
These include petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel), coal, and natural gas. fossil fuels
When the Earth's warm surface radiates heat or infrared (IR) light out to space, but some greenhouse gases absorb the IR light and reradiate it back towards the Earth. the greenhouse effect
Rising sea levels, decreasing glacier & sea ice, temperature measurements (by thermometer and satellite), huge amounts of CO₂ released by industry and transportation, lab experiments showing the greenhouse effect, and ice core samples. evidence of human-caused climate change
Drive less, carpool, use public transportation, bike, walk; stop deforestation; use more solar, wind, hydroelectric, tidal, geothermal, and nuclear energy sources; use more energy efficient appliances / vehicles, turn it off; reduce, reuse, recycle. solutions to climate change
Increase the temperature, increase the reactant concentration in liquid solutions or gas mixtures, increase the surface area of solid reactants, or use a catalyst. ways to increase reaction rates
The state of matter where the molecules move freely in random directions with large distances between molecules. It expands to fill the entire container that it is in. gas
The state of matter where the molecules move freely in random directions with small distances between molecules. It fills the bottom of the container that it is in. liquid
The state of matter where the molecules vibrate in random directions, but the molecules are held in place by each other. solid
The state of matter where the atoms have received so much energy (from high temperature or high voltages) that the atoms have separated into positively charged nuclei and free moving negative electrons. plasma
Created by: john.boren