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Chem. Sem. 2 - Boren

A review of concepts, equations, and skills for Semester 2 of Chemistry.

A measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules or atoms. temperature
A measure of the space occupied by a substance. volume
A measure of the average force per area applied on a surface by a substance's molecules. pressure
0 Kelvin. Also this is the temperature where all molecular motion stops. absolute zero
A measure of the disorder of a substance. entropy
A measure of the internal energy of a substance. enthalpy
Standard temperature and pressure. Specifically 0°C (or 273 K) and 1 atm (or 101.3 kPa). STP
The process of a gas or vapor undergoing a phase change to become a liquid. condensation
The process of a solid undergoing a phase change to become a gas or vapor. sublimation
The process of a liquid undergoing a phase change to become a gas or vapor. boiling (or evaporation)
Thermal energy that is transferred from one object or substance to another. heat
Heat transfer that occurs by direct physical contact (touching). conduction
Heat transfer that occurs through currents (usually in a gas or liquid) circulating warmer and cooler portions by rising and falling. convection
Heat transfer that occurs by infrared waves spreading out in all directions. It is the only form of heat transfer that can occur through a vacuum. radiation
A process that releases heat. The change in enthalpy is negative (ΔH = –). Examples: combustion of gasoline, condensation of water. exothermic
A process that absorbs heat. The change in enthalpy is positive (ΔH = +). Examples: boiling water, photosynthesis. endothermic
A space that contains no gas molecules or atoms of any kind. perfect vacuum
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1°C. specific heat, Cp
The state reached when the forward reaction rate is equal to the reverse reaction rate for substances in a closed system. chemical equilibrium
The principle by which an equilibrium will shift in a direction that minimizes a stress placed upon it (a change in concentration, temperature, pressure). Le Chatelier's principle
How fast the product of a chemical reaction is formed or the reactant is consumed. reaction rate
The energy hurdle that reactant molecules must overcome before they can react and form the product molecules. activation energy
A substance that is not consumed in a chemical reaction, but speeds up the reaction rate by lowering the activation energy. catalyst
The state of a molecule where it is halfway through the reaction process. It has a higher energy level than both the reactant and the product. activated complex (or transition state)
Created by: john.boren