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# Phys Sem.2 - Boren

### A review of concepts, equations, units, and variables for Semester 2 of Physics.

The units for momentum. kilograms times meters per second, kg · m / s
An object's mass multiplied by its velocity (m · v). momentum
The variable for momentum. p
The total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after a collision. conservation of momentum
Force applied over a distance. work
The units for work. Joules, J
The variable for work. W
The amount of work done per second. Also work divided by time (W / t). power
The units for power. watts, W
The variable for power. P
The energy from an object's motion. (½ · m · v²) kinetic energy
The energy due to an object's position. potential energy
The energy due to an object's height and also due to gravity. (m · g · h) gravitational potential energy
The units for kinetic energy. Joules, J
The units for potential energy. Joules, J
The total energy before an object falls is equal to the total energy right before it hits the ground. (PE₁ + KE₁ = PE₂ + KE₂) conservation of energy
The variable for kinetic energy. KE
The variable for potential energy. PE
The units for electrical charge. Coulombs, C
The variable for electrical charge. q
The amount of charge per second that flows past a spot on a wire. Also charge divided by time (q / t). current
The units for current. amperes, A
The variable for current. I
The force of attraction or repulsion between objects that are electrically charged. electrostatic force
The units for electrostatic force. newtons, N
The strength of an electrostatic force is equal to the constant times both charges divided the their distance squared (ke · q₁ · q₂ / r²). Coulomb's law
The force multiplied by the time of contact (F · Δt). It is also equivalent to an object's change in momentum. impulse
The units for impulse. N · s OR kg · m / s
When an electrically charged object charges another object by simply touching. charging by conduction
When an electrically charged object charges part of another object by moving near it without touching. charging by induction
When an two objects rub against each other and one object transfers some of its electrons to the other object. charging by friction
The electrical potential energy divided by its charge. Also how strong a battery is. voltage OR potential difference
The units for voltage or potential difference. volts, V
The variable for voltage or potential difference. V
How much a component in a circuit (such as a lightbulb) prevents current from flowing through it. resistance
The units for resistance. ohms, Ω
The variable for resistance. R
A circuit that branches off along different paths with different resistors before coming back together again. parallel circuit
A circuit that is made from multiple resistors in a row (one after another) without branching paths. series circuit
The current travelling through a circuit is equal to its voltage divided by its resistance (I = V / R) Ohm's law
The equation for the total resistance (or equivalent resistance) of a parallel circuit. 1 / Rᴛ = 1 / R₁ + 1 / R₂ + ...
The equation for the total resistance (or equivalent resistance) of a series circuit. Rᴛ = R₁ + R₂ + ...
The height of a wave from the middle line to the crest OR from the middle line to the trough. amplitude
The distance from one crest to the next crest OR from one trough to the next trough. wavelength
The number of waves that pass per second. frequency
The wave phenomena which has a wave bounce off a surface. reflection
The wave phenomena whereby waves change speed as they pass from one medium to a different medium. This changes the angle of the waves slightly. refraction
The wave phenomena whereby waves spread out and form interference patterns when they pass through a slit. diffraction
Created by: john.boren