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Chemistry Chapter 8

Chemistry Chapter 8 Final Exam Review Covalent Bonding

What info. does a molecular formula provide? shows how many atoms of each element a substance contains
What are the representative units for molecular compounds? molecules
What are the representative units for ionic compounds? formula units
What is the result of sharing electrons in covalent bonds? atoms achieve configurations of noble gases (full octet of electrons)
How are resonance structures used? used to envision bonding in molecules that cannot be adequately described by a single structural formula
How does VSEPR theory predict the shape of molecules? VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion theory) causes electron clouds to repel and spread out as far away from each other as possible.
How is orbital hybridization useful in describing molecules? it provides info. about both molecular bonding and molecular shape
How do electronegativity values determine the charge distribution in a polar molecule? the more electronegative atom attracts electrons more strongly and acquires a slightly negative charge
How do the strengths of covalent, ionic, and intermolecular attractions compare? ionic is strongest (electrostatic attraction between + & -), covalent is second (sharing e- to get octet) and intermolecular attractions are weakest
Why are the properties of covalent compounds so diverse? they are diverse due to widely varying intermolecular attractions
What is a covalent bond? atoms held together by sharing electrons, "tug of war" for electrons between atoms
What is a molecule? neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
What is a diatomic molecule? molecule containing exactly 2 atoms
What is a polyatomic ion? tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit
What is a polar covalent bond? bond in which electrons are NOT shared equally
What is a nonpolar covalent bond? bond in which electrons are shared equally
What are van der Waals forces? 2 weakest attractions between molecules (dipole interactions and dispersion forces)
What are dispersion forces? weakest of all intermolecular attractions, caused by the motion of electrons, occur when electrons move around and influence neighboring molecule
What is a hydrogen bond? attractive forces in which a hydrogen covlanetly bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom.
What is a network solid? solids in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other
What is bond dissociation energy? the energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms
Created by: stepanekj