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vocab review

science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, analyzing and making inferences from data statistics
includes collection, organization, summarizing, graphical displays descriptive statistics
includes making inferences, hypothesis testing, determining relationships, making predictions inferential statistics
the values or measurements that variables describing an event can assume data
values that are numeric quantitative data
data values that can be placed into distinct categories according to some characteristic or attribute qualitative data
assume values that can be counted discrete variables
variables that can assume all values between any two given values continuous variables
consists of all subjects that are being studied population
subset of a population sample
sample of an entire population census
characteristic or a fact of a population parameter
a characteristic or a fact of a sample statistic
an organization of raw data into tabular form using classes (or intervals) and frequencies frequency distribution
number of times the value occurs in the data set frequency count
represent data that can be placed in specific categories, such as gender, hair color, or religious affiliation categorical frequency distributions
simply lists the data values with the corresponding number of times or frequency count with which each value occurs ungrouped frequency distribution
obtained by dividing the frequency for that class by the total number of observations relative frequency
sum of the frequencies for all values at or below the given value cumulative frequency
sum of the relative frequencies for all values at or below the given value cumulative relative frequency
obtained by constructing classes (or intervals) for the data and then listing the corresponding number of values (frequency count) in each interval grouped frequency distribution
a plot that displays a dot for each value in a data set along a number line dot plot
a graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to represent the frequencies of a category in a data set bar chart/ bar gram
a graphical display of a frequency or a relative frequency distribution that uses classes and vertical bars (rectangles) of various heights to represent the frequencies histogram
a graph that displays the data using lines to connect points plotted for the frequencies. The frequencies represent the heights of the vertical bars in the histogr frequency polygon
a data plot that uses part of a data value as the stem to form groups or classes and part of the data value as the leaf. stem and leaf plot
displays data that are observed over a given period of time time-series graph
a circle that is divided into slices according to the percentage of the data values in each category pie chart
of bar chart in which the horizontal axis represents categories of interest pareto chart
the average of the set of values mean
the numerical value in the middle when the data set is arranged in order median
the most frequently occurring value in the data set mode
most of the data values fall to the left of the mean, and the tail of the distribution is to the right. The mean is to the right of the median, and the mode is to the left of the median. positively skewed
most of the data values fall to the right of the mean, and the tail is to the left. Mean is to the left of the median, and the mode is to the right. negatively skewed
data values are evenly distributed on both sides of the mean. When the distribution is unimodal, the mean, median and mode are all equal to one another and are located at the center of the distribution. symmetrical distribution
the difference between the maximum and minimum data values, is affected by outliers range
the difference between the first and third quartiles. It kicks out the extremes-a nice feature for highly skewed data. interquartile range
the 'average' number of deviations from the mean mean deviation
almost the average of the squared deviations of the data from the mean variance
most commonly used statistical tool to monitor and control the quality of goods and services, such as consistency in delivery times; positive square root of the variance standard deviation
the relative amount of dispersion in a data set. Used to compare data that use different units. coefficient of variation
about 68% of the data is within 1SD of the mean, about 95% of the data is within 2SD of the mean, about 99.7% of the data is within 3SD of the mean Empirical Rule
the mean is less than the median is less than the mode left-skewed distribution
the mode is less than the median is less than the mean right-skewed distribution
Used to compare two or more data sets; tells us how many SD a specific value is above or below the mean value of the data set z score
numerical values that divide an ordered data set into 100 groups of values with a most 1 percent of the data values in each group percentiles
a graphical display that involves a five number summary of a distribution of values consisting of the minimum value, the lower quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and the maximum value box plot
the values of the dependent variable are along the vertical axis, and the values of the independent variable are along the horizontal axis scatter plot
a statistical relationship between two variables correlation
named data nominal
ordinal ordered data
interval uniformly spaced values with no natural zero
ratio uniformly spaced values with a natural zero
simple random sample (SRS) ideal method (all members of a population have an equally likely chance to be represented in the sample--no intentional bias).
convenience sample gather data in the easiest way possible
cluster sample divide the population into clusters and randomly select from the clusters
stratified sample divide the population into at least two different strata each with a shared characteristic-gender, age group and then sample from these strata
systematic samples from some beginning data value we select every nth data value
Created by: bertaka