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Chem Test Chapter 11

electromagnetic radiation radiant energy exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light
wave model light consists of electromagnetic radiation traveling through space
wavelength the distance between two consecutive wave peaks/crests or troughs in a wave
λ wavelength
frequency the number of waves (cycles) per second that pass given point in space
v frequency
speed how fast a given peak travels
amplitude the displacement of a wave from zero; the height of a peak or the depth of a trough
wave-particle nature of light light consists of both waves and particles of energy
photon particle of electromagnetic radiation, packet of energy
excited state a higher energy state of an atom due to excess energy
ground state the lowest possible energy state of an atom
emission spectra bright line spectra produced when electrons drop to lower energy levels
absorption spectra dark lines on a rainbow background, electrons in cooler outer laters go up to higher energy levels and absorb proper frequencies
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle it is impossible to know simultaneously both the exact momentum of an electron and its exact position in space
atomic orbital the three dimensional region in which there is a high probability of finding as electron in an atom
principal energy level/principal quantum number number denoted by n and which indirectly describes the size of the electron orbital
sublevels types of orbitals
Aufbau Principle electrons occupy atomic orbitals starting with the lowest energy orbital first
Paul Exclusion Principle an atomic orbitals can hold a maximum of two electrons and those two electrons must have opposite spins
electron configuration the arrangement of electrons in an atom
orbital diagram orbitals are subdivided into boxes or lines with arrows representing electrons
Hund's Rule when electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, each is singly occupied before doubly occupied and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same (parallel) spin
valence electrons the electrons in the outermost (highest) principal energy level of an atom; the electrons involved in bonding
core electrons inner electrons; the electrons that are not involved in binding atoms together
atomic radius measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons
ionization energy the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an element
n number of sub levels
letter type/shape of orbital
s 1
p 3
d 5
f 7
Layman UV
Balmer visible
Pashcen IR
increasing wavelength as you go right
increasing frequency as you go left
Rutherford discovered nuclear atom and electrons; thought electrons revolved around around the nucleus like planets around the sun; not right cause electrons would collapse
Bohr still thought electrons revolved like planets (in orbits); the theorized that electrons could move up in discrete amounts of energy to larger orbits; problem - not specific orbits
Schrodinger and de Broglie developed wave-mechanical model; theorizes electrons have wave and particle properties; electrons move to different orbitals (not orbits) when energy is added; current model
metals lustrous appearance, malleable and ductile, excellent conductors of heat and electricity; tend to lose electrons to form positive ions
nonmetals lack properties of metals, some exceptions; tend to gain electrons to form negative ions
metalloids have properties of metals and nonmetals; along stair step
reactivity (metals) increases down a group, most likely to lose an electron; most reactive is francium
reactivity (nonmetals) decreases down group; doesn't desire another energy level filled as much as previous levels; most reactive is fluorine
Created by: meg.minor.15