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Physics part I

physics part I review

What is Thomas Atom known for? Cathode ray tubes (atom looks like plum pudding)
What did Ernest Rutherford do? 1911 introduced nuclear model
What is Bohr Atom known for? Minature solar system model
What is a quark? photon
Name two new theories? string and quantum chromodynamics
What is an isotope? atom with the same # of protons but a different # of neutrons
What is energy? ability to do work
what is mechanics? deals with the motion of objects
Is weight dependent on gravity? Yes
What is weight? the force an object exerts under gravity
What is mass? amount of matter contained in an object
What is a molecule? smallest particle of a compound
What is a compound? two or more elements joined together
What is an atom? Smallest particle of an element
How many elements are there? 100 approx.
What is matter? substances making up all physical objects having mass, weight and that can change shape
The atomic # is equal to? # of protons
What is the atomic mass equal to? protons + neutrons
Who invented the periodic table? Dmitri Mendeleev
What makes up an atom? proton, neutron, electron
In 1911, Rutherford showed that the atom was composed of what? nucleus
If an electron is gained or lost from an atom, what is it called??? ionized
What is radioactivity? some atoms exist in abnormally excited states characterized by an unstable nucleus. To become stable nucleus transforms into another atom
How is an ion pair formed? the x-ray photon transfers its energy to orbital electron and ejects that electron from the atom.
What is centripetal force? electrons revolve around nucleus in fixed orbits/shells
What is centrifugal force? in the normal arom this force balances the centripetal force (autoclave)
What is the Law of conservation of energy? sum total of all matter and energy is a constant
Can either matter or energy be destroyed/created? No
Are gamma rays natural? Yes
Is potential energy stored? Yes
With kinetic energy random motion of molecules cause? heat
A heat unit if equal to? Calorie
What is work? Result of force acting on an object
What is Newton's 1st Law? A body will remain at rest unless acted on by an external force?
What is Newton's 2nd Law? The force applied to move an object is equal to the mass of the object x acceleration
What is Newton's 3rd Law? For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
What is motion? Velocity or acceleration
What is velocity? Speed, the rate of change of position over time, i.e. 150mph
What is acceleration? rate of change of velocity over timei.e. 0 to 60 in 30 seconds
What is power? rate of doing work
What is a bindle of energy? Photon
Who first came up with the atom? greeks
What is Dalton Atom known for? 1st to break down concept of the element. English school teacher
What did Dmitri Mendeleev do? Periodic table
The periodic table is based upon what? the number of protons in each element
Electromagnetic energy travels? at the speed of light
Are x-rays monoenergetic? No, they are polyenergetic
Are x-rays homogenous? No, they are heterogeneous
Are x-rays electrically charged? No, they are neutral
Can we focus x-rays with a lens? No
An electron has what charge? Negative
What are two different types of mechanical energy? potential and kinetic
Can we convert mechanical energy into thermal energy? Yes
Can we convert electrical energy into chemical energy? Yes
Are x-rays able to travel in a vacuum? Yes
What does the glass envelope of the tube do? It acts as a vacuum
The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is called what? Atomic mass
What is the quantum numnber? the number of cells
In the excitation process, the electrons in an atom are moved to what energy state? higher energy
Do isotopes have the same or different mass number? Different
Do isotopes have the same or different atomic number? Same