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Particle Physics Swa

CERN is the acronym for The European Organization for Nuclear Research
Where is CERN situated Just outside Geneva, on the Swiss-French border
When was CERN established, under the auspices of UNESCO? 1952
What is the LHC? The large hadron collider
How long is the LHC in circumference? 27km
How deep underground is the LHC? 100m
What do they do and research at CERN? They collide protons at nearly light speed, to find the fundamental building block of matter
What are the fundamental building blocks of a proton? 2 up quarks and 1 down quark
What is the fundamental building blocks of a neutron? 2 down quarks and 1 up quark
What is the Standard Model? A mathematical formula of the universe, with all the fundamental forces and particles
Name the fundamental particles and forces of the Standard Model Quarks, leptons and bosons. 6quarks, 6leptons and force carrier particles
Name the three generations of particles in the Standard model Quarks, leptons and bosons
Name the 6 flavours of quarks Up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom
What are the 6 types of leptons? Electron, muon, tau, electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino
What is the difference between an electron and a muon? They have different mass, both have the same charge of negative
What is the most massive lepton called? The Tau
Name the force carrier particles or bosons in the Standard Model The photon, gluon, W and Z boson
Which forces (interactions) are governed by which bosons? Electromagnetic force is governed by the photon. Strong force governed by the gluon. Weak force governed by the W and Z bosons.
Which interaction particle is responsible for making the sun shine and for radioactivity? The W and Z bosons
Which boson interacts with charged particles to make them attract or repel? The photon
Which boson is responsible for keeping the nucleus intact and preventing it from exploding apart? The gluon, governing the strong force
Which boson has been discovered and added to the Standard Model in 2012? The Higgs boson
What does the Higgs boson do on a fundamental level? It gives all matter mass
How does the Higgs particle give mass to all particles? The Higgs particles clump around matter with mass, and interacts with them. The more it interacts and clumps around a particle, the more massive that particle becomes. Oppositely, the less massive a particle is, the less the Higgs field clumps around it.
Do neutrinos have mass? Yes, very little though
What is the partial charge on an Up quark? +2/3
Give the partial charge on a Down quark -1/3
Taking cognizance of the charges on up and down quarks, explain why the charge of a proton is +1. A proton consists of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark, mathematically there charges add as follows: 2(+2/3) + (-1/3) = + 4/3 - 1/3 = +3/3 = +1
Taking cognizance of the respective charges on up and down quarks, explain why the charge of a neutron is 0. A neutron consists of one up and two down quarks, mathematically their charges add up like this: +2/3 + 2(-1/3) = +2/3 - 2/3 = 0
Name some of the technological spin offs from CERN Technologies. - The WWW was invented in CERN. - PET and CT scans for medical imaging. - Cancer therapy, carbon and proton therapy - The Touch Screen was invented in CERN. - Particle accelerator technologies
Who is the Director General of CERN as from 2016? Prof Fabiola Gianotti, particle physicist
Who was the former DG of CERN? Prof Rolf Heuer
How does CERN live out its policy of Science for a Peace? -Its technologies, discoveries and inventions may not ever be used for military use. (No military use.) -It uses and encourages global collaboration of scientists all over the world, from all different countries, to work together for Science. Regardless.
What is the name of the CERN residential International Programme which promotes bringing modern physics into the classroom at schools all over the world? CERN HST
Name the four biggest experiments at CERN, with detectors on the circumference of the LHC ring. ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb.
Where is the ATLAS detector situated? In Geneva, Switzerland
Where is CMS's detector situated underground? Prevessin, France
What does LHCb investigate? They investigate the slight difference between matter and antimatter in the Universe by studying the beauty quark.
Who discovered the Higgs boson? The ATLAS experiment at CERN, in collaboration with CMS
Who predicted the Higgs boson's existence and in what year? Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, in the 1960's.
When was the Higgs boson discovered and in what year did it win the Nobel Prize? 2012 discovered and awarded a Nobel Prize in 2013.
How many fundamental forces are there in the universe? Name them. 4. Electromagnetic force, strong force, weak force and gravitational force
Why is force of gravity not included in the Standard Model? It's force is too weak, much much weaker than any if the other three and works in a different mechanism with a different origin as the other three forces.
If the force of gravity is so extremely weak, weaker than any if the other three fundamental forces, why does it have such a great effect on our planets and the entire universe? Gravitational force is a long range force, but is so small on an atomic scale. Comparing the strength of EM vs gravitational force between two protons for example, result in much greater EM than gravitational force.
Is the Standard Model a complete theory yet? No, we know that. But it is the best theory ever and its calculations work 100% to explain and predict the behaviour of the quantum world.
Photons are massless; why is it that they interact with gravitational effects of black holes and huge massive stars through gravitational lensing? Photos of light do not get bent and attracted by massive stars and black holes through gravity (which is a mass in mass force), but they simply follow the curvature of space-time's 'fabric' around massive bodies (stars and black holes),i.e. Grav lensing
Name a very famous particle physicist who used to be a pop star. Prof Brian Cox, at University of Manchester UK
The date (year and month) of discovery of the pentaquark: 2015, July
A composite particle made up of 1 quark and 1 antiquark Meson
A composite particle consisting of 3 quarks Baryon
The antimatter particle of an electron Positron
Pair production The creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle
The process that occurs when an electron collides with an antiproton to produce two photons Annihilation
Cockcroft and Walton confirmed the following equation through particle physics experiment: E=mc^2
The three things conserved in any nuclear reaction, are: -Momentum -Electric charge -Mass-energy
Created by: lizellex



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