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A & P Final II

A & P II final

The inner cell mass of the blastocyst will form the embryo
The process of cell division that occurs after fertilization is called cleavage
At what age in fetal development is the heart beat first present 4 weeks or month
By day of embryonic development a new layer forms creating the three germ layers this process is called gastrulation
The most important factor affecting the glomerus filtration rate is the glomerular filtration pressure
When implantation first occurs nutrients formed by the trophoblast can easily reach the inner cell mass with simple Diffusion
Embryologic in early fetal development occurs in what trimester first trimester
Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes are called autosomes
The period of gestation characterized by rapid absolute fetal growth is the what ____ trimester. Third trimester
Sperm production occurs in the seminiferous tubules
Sperm develops from stem cells called spermatogonia
Projections of the tunica albuginea known as septae divide the testis into lobules
The spermatic cord contains Artery veins, vas deferens, lymphatics blood vessels, nerves
Nerves that go through the spermatic cord is called genital femoral
Interstitial cells of Leydig produce Testerone
Another cell along the interstitial cell Sustentacular cells or Sertoli cells
What process occurs during Amphimixis Fusion of the male and female pronuclei
Where does the fertilization of the ovum occur Fallopian tubes
The principle cation in intercellular fluid is Potassium
Hypoventilation would cause _____ acidosis Respiratory
The most significant source of heat in the body is cellular metabolism
Starch is chemically digested by enzymes produced in the pancreas and salvia
Nephron cells that respond to the concentration of filtrate are JG cells/ Juxtaglomerular cells
Micuration is a _____ reflex Sacral
Prolonged vomiting can result in Metabolic alkalosis
The primary role of the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system is to Maintaining a stable pH counteracting the production of hydrogen ions from organic fixed acids
One of the effect of ADH is Water retention
Accumulation of excess fluid in the tissue is called Edema
Water transports between intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid occurs by osmosis Calcium reabsorption by the kidney is promoted by the hormone - PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism ADH
A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of _______acidosis/alkalosis Respiratory acidosis
In the core of each villus, there is a lymph capillary called? Lacteal
The wave like smooth muscle contraction that move foodstuffs through the alimentary canal is called? peristalsis
The chemical digestion starting with the mouth is? carbohydrates
The chemical digestion starting at the stomach is? proteins
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that extends to the digestive organs. mesentery
The segment of small intestine that connects to the cecum? Ileum
The primary dentition consists of the deciduous teeth. There are 20 deciduous teeth that fall out before the age of 12
What are the stomach epithelium cells that secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor? parietal cells
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the? Proteins and peptide fragments
The bile from gallbladder Drains through pancreas to duodenum
The stomach parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor, which is essential in the absorption of Vtamin B12
Hepatocytes do not do not secrete digestive enzymes
Which of the following is not an anatomic characteristic of the colon? pilcae circulars
The function of the globlet cells in the intestinal wall is? Produce mucus that protects the intestinal wall.
The fluid secreted into the small intestine that contains emulsify that fat is Bile
Struction of tooth includes A thin periodontal ligament that holds the tooth in the alveolus
A baby with an abnormal plyloric valve has a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding because of the frequent loss of gastric juices the blood test will likely indicate Alkalosis (pH value too high)
The longest portion of the alimentary canal is jejunum
Fat is broken down to fatty acids and monoglysarides and formed ______ to be transported to the systemic circulation via the lymph. Chorea
Which of the following has all the parts in proper sequence cecum, ascending colon, transeverse colon, descending colon see pg 834
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for nerons and red blood cells is Glucose
Anabolism includes reations in which Large molecules or structure are built from smaller ones.
The process of breaking triglyceride down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as Lipolysis
Lipogensis occurs when there is a shortage of fatty acids.
Glycogen is formed in the liver during the absorptive state
Vitamins are organic compounds they often function as coenzymes to assist in catalysis
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive all organs switch from the the brain
Heat-Loss mechanisms do not include vasoconstriction
The most important hormonal factor in determing BMR Thyroxine
Which of the following nutrient yield the high amount of energy per gram when metabolized. Fats
Which of the following does not occur in the mitrochondia Glycolysis
The vitamin that is essential to the formation of clotting proteins is Vitamin K
The trace of minerals cobalt is a constituent of Vitamin B12
Most of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and iron are stored in the Liver
Vasodilation of the skin at room temperature does what Lowers the body temperature.
A crtitical lipid that is used as building block of cells and hormones instead of an energy source is Cholesterol
Krebs cycle, electron transport chain and oxidation phosphorylation occurs in the Mitrochondia
The ____ is released to the blood and removed from the body in the urine. urea
Lipids are not water soluble transport cholesterol to peripheral tissues and regulate cholesterol synthesis LDL( Low density lipoproteins)
The essential mineral for the production hormone T3 and T4 is Iodine
A spermatozan contains all of the following parts of the cell except golgi apparatus (it does contain nucleus, mitochondria, flagellum)
The process of creating haploid cells is called meiosis
The sequence of the travel of spermatozoa is testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland
The interstitial cells (of Leydig) of the seminiferous tubule produce androgen
Sperm production occurs at the seminiferous tubules
The target of the pituitary hormone follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) in males is the seminferous tubules
The uterus is located posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the colon
The muscular wall of uterus is called the myometrium
The inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the cervix
The ligaments that arise on the lateral margins of the uterus and extend through the inguinal canal are the round ligaments
A corpus luteum is formed by the follicle after ovulation
Chronologically, the luteal phase of ovarian cycle corresponds to ____ of the uterine cycle. secretory phase
The surge of luteinizing hormone level occurs right before ovulation
During the menses phase of the uterine cycle: the functional layer is sloughed off
Menopause is caused by: no primordial follicles left to respond to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
The reproductive system: produces gametes, stores and transports gametes, nourishes gametes (all of them)
Projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septae, divide the testis into lobules
The spermatic cord is: a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens and the blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics that serve the testis
The sustentacular cells (Sertoli Cells) of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following except: secrete testosterone (they do maintain the blood-testis barrier, support spermiogenesis, secrete inhibin, secrete androgen-binding protein)
The cells that are formed at the end of meiosis are called spermatids
Taking food into the system Ingestion
Chewing, Mixing, Churning and segmentation of food Mechanical Digestion
Enzymatic degradation of foodstuffs into simpler molecules Chemical Digestion
Passage of Digested materials from the lumen of the GI tract into the blood or lymph Absorption
Elimination of digestible solids Defacation
Provide the primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis Carbohydrates
Acts as an accessory fuel Lipids
Important structural material (keratin, collagen, etc) and functional materials (enzymes, etc) Proteins
Most function as co-enzymes not used as structural components
Incorporation into some body structures used in conjunction with enzymes
Solvent for chemical reactions in body Water
A protein metabolite found in skeletal muscle and excreted in urine Creatinine
Not normally found in the urine Glucose
A detoxified ammonia compound Urea
In relation to the extrinsic salivary glands....... ....they are primarily regulated by the parasympathetic division of ANS
During deglutination, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the gastroesophageal sphincter
Protective collections of lymphocytes and macrophages occur in the peyers patches
Starch is chemically digested by enzymes produced in the salivary glands and pancreas
Swallowing reflexes begin when the receptors are stimulated by food in this structure pharynx
Blood flows into the liver via the ___________ and ___________ while blood exits the liver via the __________.
The major outcome that occurs through mechanical digestive activities is an increase in the surface area of food by breaking it into smaller fragments.
The propulsive function that occurs int eh esophagus is called Peristalsis
The stimulus for the release of pancreatic enzymes is the presence of chyme in the duodenum containing protein and fats
What is the mixing action that exposes materials to secretions and absorptive factors? Segmentation
What is the function of the large intestine? Absorption of water, ions, and some vitamins
This organ provides absorbative function, is shorter than the small intestine, contains a large number of bacteria Large intestine
Characteristic of essential nutrients Cannot by synthesized by the body
Most __________ function as co-enzymes in the body Vitamins
The form of visual pigments is a function of vitamin A
The stage of cell respiration in which carbon dioxide is removed from a carbon source is Krebs Cycle
The most significant source of heat in the body is cellular respiration
What releases energy stored in chemical bonds? the process of cellular respiration
Fats have many more calories than carbohydrates because they .... contain more potential acetyl groups to enter Krebs Cycle
The thermoregulatory center is located in the hypothalamus
Chromium is considered a trace element
Insulin release would occur in the absorptive state
The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive state is Insulin
How is Na+ reabsorbed? Active transport using ATP
In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions
Nephron cells that respond to the concentration of filtrate are macula densa cells
What produces a concentration gradient that will allow the nephron to concentrate filtrate? countercurrent mechanism
The most important factor influencing glomerular filtration rate is blood hydrostatic pressure
when the concentration of ADH increases.... less urine is produced
which structure is the muscular tube that delivers urine to the bladder ureter
which substance of the following would have the lowest absorption rate? amino acids: sodium: urea: glucose urea
urine passes through what in what order to get to the external environment? calyx
If the efferent arteriole constricts while the afferent arteriole remains unchanged, the glomerular filtration rate will Increase
Death of mitochondria in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle would result in Increased Na+ and Cl- ions in the urine output
What is the main substance reabsorbed in the region of the descending limb of the loop of Henle? Water
Created by: azcerkic