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Ch 10 Chem

energy the ability to do work or produce heat
potential energy energy due to position or composition
kinetic energy energy due to the motion of the object
law of conservation of energy energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed
frictional heating energy transferred to a surface as heat
state function a property of a system that does not depend on the pathway
temperature a measure of the random motions (average kinetic energy) of the components of a substance
heat flow of energy due to temperature difference
thermal energy the random motions of the components of an object
heat energy the way in which thermal energy is transferred from a hotter object to a colder object
thermodynamics study of energy
first law of thermodynamics the energy of the universe is constant (aka the law of conservation of energy)
internal energy (E) the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all the "particles" in the system
system the part of the universe on which we wish to focus attention
surroundings includes everything else in the universe
exothermic refers to a process in which energy (as heat) flows out of the system and into the surroundings (i.e. heat released)
endothermic refers to a process in which energy (as heat) flows out of the surroundings into the system (heat is absorbed)
calorimetry the study of heat transferred in a chemical reaction
calorimeter an insulated apparatus containing a liquid reservoir in which the ration occurs
calorie the amount of energy (heat) needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius
Joule 1 calorie = 4.184 joules
heat capacity (C) the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a substance 1 degree celsius
specific heat capacity the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius
thermochemistry the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state
enthalpy (H) the energy (heat) flow of a system at constant pressure
thermochemical equation a chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change
heat of reaction enthalpy change/heat released or absorbed in a chemical reaction (depends on the stoichiometry of the reaction), reported as *triangle* H
heat of combustion heat of reaction for the complete burning of one mole of a substance
molar heat of fusion heat absorbed by 1 mol of a substance in freezing at a constant temperature
molar heat of solidification the heat released by 1 mol of a substance in freezing at a constant temperature
molar heat of vaporization the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of a given liquid at a constant temperature
molar heat of condensation the amount of heat released when one mole of a vapor condenses at its normal boiling point
molar heat of solution the enthalpy change caused by the dissolution of one mole of substance
hess's law the change in enthalpy going from a given set of reactants to a given set of products does not depend on the number of steps in the reaction
hess's law of heat summation if you add two or more thermochemical equations to give a final equation, then you can also add the heats of reaction to give the final heat of reaction
standard heat of formation the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements with all substances in their standard states
entropy a measure of disorder or randomness
second law of thermodynamics the entropy of the universe is always increasing
Created by: meg.minor.15