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AP Physics 1

Vocabulary Chapter 6

TermDefinition
Joule(J) The SI unit of work and energy. 1 J of work equals the force of one Newton exerted through a distance of one meter 1J=1N*m. Electrical Energy is equivalent to work done in moving a charge so the joule can also be used to measure electrical energy 1J=1V*C
Kinetic Energy The energy that an object posses because of its motion. The kinetic energy of an object is directly proportional to its mass and also to the square of its velocity. KE=1/2mv^2
Potential Energy Energy resulting from the position or state of an object.
Power Power is the time-rate of doing work. Since energy and work are closely related power is also the time-rate at which energy is expanded. Power is a scalar quantity. SI unit is 1W =1J/s. P=W/t=Fd/t=Fv.
Conservation of Energy In any transfer of energy among objects in a closed system the total energy of the system remains constant. The change in energy of a system is equal to the sum of the change in its kinetic energy the change in its potential energy and internal energy
Elastic Potential Energy When work is done on a spring by compressing or stretching it potential energy is stored in the spring. The slope of a force-displacement graph is the spring constant k:Fs=kx
Energy The capacity of a system to do work. Work can be done only by the transfer of energy from one object or system to another. Energy is a scalar quantity. The joule (J) is the SI unit of energy 1J=1watt-second
Gravitational Potential Energy When work is done on an object by moving it against an gravitational field the objects squires gravitational potential energy.
Internal Energy The total energy of a system or object including its potential energy and its kinetic energy.
Spring An elastic body such as a coil of metal that recovers its shape after being compressed, bent,or stretched.
Spring Constant The constant of proportionality in the equation for the force required to strtch or compress a spring: Fs=kx
Total Mechanical Energy E sum of the kinetic and potential energies in a mechanical system.
Work Work is done on an object when a force displaces the object. Work is = to product of the force acting on an object and its resultant displacement in the direction of the forceW=Fd. Work is a scalar quantity = to the amount of energy it takes to to work
Spring Potential Energy The constant of proportionality in the equation for the force required to stretch or compress a spring: Fs=kx. The spring constant is effectively a measure of the stiffness of a spring the larger the spring the harder it is to stretch or compress.
Created by: BMcCormack