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Chemistry Chpt. 6

vitamins

QuestionAnswer
The transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are different temperatures Heat
________ is the measure of thermal energy Temperature
What is energy Energy is the capacity to do work
Energy that comes from the sun and is earth's primary energy source Radiant energy
Energy that is associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules Thermal energy
Energy that is stored within the bonds of chemical substances Chemical energy
Energy that is stored within the collections of neutrons and protons in the atom Nuclear energy
Energy that is available by virtue of an object's position Potential energy
Thermochemistry The study of heat change in chemical reactions
System The specific part of the universe that is of interest in the study
Endothermic process Any process in which heat has to be supplied to the system from the surroundings
Exothermic process Any process that gives off heat transfers thermal energy from the system to the surroundings
Thermodynamics The scientific study of the interconversion of heat and other kinds of energy
State function Properties that are determined by the state of the system, regardless of how that condition was achieved.
Heat given off by the system to the surroundings Exothermic
Heat absorbed by the system from the surroundings Endothermic
First law of thermodynamics Energy can be converted from one form to another, but can not be created or destroyed
Chemical energy lost by combustion= =energy gained by the surroundings
Enthalpy(H) Used to quantify heat flow into or out of a system in a process that occurs at constant pressure
Heat given off or absorbed during a reaction at constant pressure Enthalpy
The stoichiometric coefficients always refer to the number of ______ of a substance Moles
Specific heat (s) of a substance The amount of heat (q) required to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance by one degree celsius
Heat capacity (C) of a substance The amount of heat required (q) to raise the temperature of a given quantity (m) of the substance by one degree Celsius
Hess law When reactants are converted to products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps
Lattice Energy (U) The energy required to completely separate one Mile of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ions
Heat of Hydration The enthalpy change associated with the hydration process
Heat of Dilution Heat change associated with the dilution process
Thermodynamics Scientific study of the interconversion of heat and other kinds of energy
State of a system The value of all relevant macroscopic properties such as: composition, energy, temperature, pressure, volume, etc
State functions (E, P, V, T) Properties that are determined by the state of the system regardless of how that condition was achieved
First law of thermodynamics Energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed (Law of conversation of energy)
Work (w) Force times distance F•d
Energy The capacity to do work
Law of conservation of energy The total quantity of energy in the universe is assumed constant
Heat The transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are at different temperature. Heat flows from "hot" object to "cold" object. Heat can be either absorbed or released.
Open system Can exchange mass and energy, usually in the form of heat, with its surrounding
Closed system Allows only energy transfer (not mass) between system and surrounding
Isolated system No heat nor mass exchange between system and surrounding
Surrounding The rest of the universe outside the system
Extensive property Can't be measured directly Enthalpy
Enthalpy of reaction H > 0 endothermic H < 0 exothermic
Calorimetry The measure of heat exchanges
The amount of heat (q) Is equal to the product of the mass of the object and its specific heat times the change of its temperature
Standard state P= 1atm T= 25•c
Standard enthalpy of formation The heat change that results when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements at 1atm pressure
Avogadros law At a constant temperature & pressure the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the amount of gas particles
Real gas Doesn't behave like ideal gases due to the interaction between the molecules & gas molecules regardless of size, has infinitesimal volume. They behave according to the van der waals equation
Charles law For a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas
Ideal gas law Hypothetical gas where P-V-T behavior can be completely accounted for by the ideal gas equation
STP Standard Temperature & Pressure R = PV/nT P= 1atm V= 22.414l n= 1mol T= 273.15k
Boyles Law For fixed amount of gas at constant temperature the volume of the gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas
T/F For any endothermic process, the temperature of the surrounding is warmer than the system False
T/F In all electromagnetic radiations, those having high frequencies would also have large wavelengths False
T/F According to the quantum numbers, there is a "4d" orbital True
T/F At constant pressure, the reaction: 2NH3(g)----> 3H2(g)+N2(g) is a system that does work on the surrounding True
T/F Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given quantity of substance by 1•c False
T/F For a given element, the size of its cation is generally smaller than its anion True
T/F Given the specific heat of aluminum is 0.900 J/g•c and iron is 0.444J/g•c. It would take longer to raise the temperature of iron by 1•c than that of aluminum under the same heat condition False
T/F Nitrogen has five valence electrons True
T/F The ground state of an electron in an element is when the electron is most stable True
T/F Despite the fact boron and magnesium are in different groups, it is found that they have many similarities in their chemical behaviors. False
Created by: Capty103