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Biochem 4 - PCC

Biochem final

Tangles which can accumulate and eventually cause the cell to burst and die (alzheimer's related) is caused by what? Phosphorylated tau proteins
What is a marker for acute inflammation? C-Reactive proteins
Normal blood glucose range? 70-99 mg per dL
Weakness, rapid heartbeat, sweating, hunger, trembling, headache, mental dullness and seizure are symptoms of what? Hypoglycemia
Causes of hypoglycemia 1. Too much insulin 2. Stenous activity 3. Poor diet 4. Pancreatic tumor
''must have'' three symptoms for hypoglycemia? 1. Less that 70 mg per dL of glucose 2. Have previous mentioned symptoms 3. Symptoms releived upon ingesting carbs
Hypoglycemia treatment: replace simple sugars with what? Eat what type of meals? 1. Fiber rich carbs (fruit) 2. Smaller, more frequent meals
Frequent urination, dehydration and thirst are symptoms of what? Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia or diabetes is classified at what blood glucose level? Over 126 mg per dL
Which type of diabetes is insulin dependant, age of onset is before 30, classified as autoimune (beta cells do not produce insulin) Type 1
What type of diabetes is classified as insuline resistant, 90-95 percent of diabetes, obesity, age of onset is over 45 and is called the disease of overeating Type 2
Main diffrence between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 there is problem with making the insuline while type 2 there is insensitivity to the insuline receptors (there is too much insuline floating around)
Because the body becomes insensitive to insuline in type 2 diabetes, what transport in hindered? GLUT 4
What compounds made form glucose fragments are toxic in diabetes? AGEs (... HBA1C)
Marcrovascular complications in diabetes (3) 1. AGEs accelerate heart disease 2. CVD 3. Foot ulcers
Microvascular complications of diabetes (2) 1. AGEs damage blood vessels in eyes --- blindness 2. Neuropathy --- kidney failure
People with dibaetes eventually die from what? CVD
High GI in foods = ? Low GI in food = ? 1. 70 2. 55
High GI foods will spike ___ which will spike ___ which will dive blood glucose ____. 1. Blood glucose 2. Insuline 3. Down
What kind of fiber can reduce the GI of food? Soluble fiber
If muscle doesn't need glucose, where does it go? To the liver to get turned into fat
Any protein digestion in the mouth? No|
In the stomach, HCL is released from parietal cells in respoinse to what 3 compounds? 1. Gastrin 2. ACh 3. Histamine
HCL does what 2 things in the stomach? 1. Denatures proteins 2. Turns pepsinogen into pepsin
Endopeptidases attack peptides where? Results in what? 1. In the middle of the chain 2. Large polypeptides, oligopeptides and free AA
In the small intestinge, secretin and CCK stimulate the release of what? What does this do? 1. Bicarbonates, H20, electrolytes and zymogens 2. Neutralizes stomac acids so amino acids can get in
Bicarbonate and zymogens are released from the ___ to the ___ in the response to ____. 1. Pancrease 2. SI 3. CCK and secretin
Many zymogens are realsed by the pancreas: trypsinogen, chymotripsinogen, procarboxy peptidase. Many of these use what to tunr into their active form? Trypsin
List all the endopeptidases 1. Trypsin 2. Chymotripsin 3. Pepsin
List all the exopeptidases Carboxypeptidase, amino peptidase
List 5 pancreatic proteases in the SI 1. Trypsin 2. Chymotrypsin 3. Carboxypeptidase 4. Elastase 5. Collagenase
Trypsin and chymotrypsin digests what into what? Polypeptides into AAs, Dipeptides and Tripeptides
Carboypeptidase is dependent on what mineral? It digests what into what? 1. Zinc 2. Carboxyl groups into free AA
Elastase digest what into what? Fibrous protein into peptides and AAs
Collagenase edigestion collagen into what? Peptides and AAs
List 3 brush border proteases 1. Enteropeptidase 2. Aminopeptidase 3. Dipeptidase
What does enterpeptidases do? Activates trypsin
In the SI, proteins digested into what? Free AA, Dipeptides and Tripeptides
Protein digestion in LI? Trick question! None!
Dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed via what? What is the carrier protein? 1. Active transport 2. PEPT1
Peptide absorption for ___ % of proteins absorbed 60%
Which are more easily absorbed: Essential or Non essential AAs? Neutral or charged AAs? Largeer or smaller side chains AAs 1. Essential AAs 2. Neutral AAs 3. Large side chains
AA in the enterocyte are either used for ___ or ___? 1. Energy 2. Protein synthesis
Peptide absorption requires what? (2) Na+ and-or H+
2 AAs that are only ketogenic Leucine and Lycine
Nine essential AAs Histadine, tryptophan, valine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenolanine, methionine (His TV TILL PM)
Five AAs that are both glucogenic and ketogenic Isolucine, phenylanine, typtophan, tyrosine, threonine (PITTT)
Three branched chain AAs Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine (LIV)
Only AA without a chiral carbon? Found in high concentrations of what? 1. Glycine 2. Collagen
Which amino acid is a precursor to cholesterol? Leucine
Which amino acid is replaced in sickle cell anemia? Valine
AA that is precursor to seratonin and melatonin? Tryptophan
AA that is precursor to dopamine and thyrosin (catacolamines) Tryrosine
Which AA may turn into fat but not cholesterol? Lysine
Three aromatic AAs. Phenylanine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine (PTT)
A polar AA that is inmportant in active sites of enzymes? Serine
A basic AA also found in active sites of enzymes Lysine
Sulfur containing amnio acid Cysteine
Polar AA that is the principal nitrogen carrier in the body Glutamine
Coenzymes in AA metabolism Vitamin C, B12 and Follic Acid
Cofactor in AA metabolism Iron, Niacin
Nine non polar AAs Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Proline, Phenylanine, Tryptophan (LIV TAG MPP)
6 polar AAs Cystein, Tyrosin, Serine, Threonine, Asparagine, Glutamine (CT STAG)
2 acid amino acids Aspartic acid, glutamic acid
3 basic AAs Histadine, Arginine, Lysine (HAL)
Foods that contain all essential AAs are called what? Complete proteins
List of complete proteins 1. Animal products 2. Soy 3. Amaranth 4. Quinoa
Corn is deficient in what 2 amina acids? Lysine and Tryptophan
Legumes are deficient in what? Methionine
Rice and wheat are deficient in what AA? Lysine
We need all 20 AAs in order to make protein in the body. Do we need to get all AAs in every mean? No, but at least every 24 hours
Any given time, how many grams of AA in the body (free pool)? Dietary proteins? Endogenous proteins? Cell recycling? 1. 150g 2. 100g 3. 70g 4. 230g
Cell is recycled by lysosome if what? 1. Damaged by free radicals 2. Oxidized 3. Misfolded 4. No longer needed
In order for an amino acid to be protonated , pH __ PKA ph has to be SMALLER than PKA
PK1 = ? PK2 = ? 1. Carboxyl group 2. Amino group
If you have a PKR, then PL = ? Average of PKR and next closest PK
What kind of hormone is glucagon? Peptide hormone
What is the smallest peptide? Glutathione (3 AAs long)
Alpha-helixes and Beta-Pleated sheets are in what structure of protein? 2 degree
Structure of protein that are a chain of AAs bound by covalent bonding 1 degree
Why are globular proteins more soluble in water than smaller chains? Because a hydrophilic shell folds around a hydrophobic core allowing it to move through H2O easier
Are fibrous proteins soluble in H2O? Why? No, fibrous proteins are long strans without hydrophilic shell
Which molecule is triple helical in shape that is virtually insoluble in H2O? Elastin, Collagen, Hemoglobin, Myoglobin? Collagen
What structures of proteins are affected by denaturing? Which are not? 1. 2, 3, 4 degree 2. 1 degree
What effects does protein unfolding have? 1. Decreases solubility 2. Loss of activity 2. Increased digestion 4. Increases viscosity
If you weigh 100 lbs, how much protein do you need? 36g
Precursor to seratonin and melatonin? Trytophan
Precursor to thyroid hormones Thyrosine
Precursor to histamine Histidine
Precursor to catecholamines such as dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine Tyrosine
What will an allosteric regulator do to an enzyme? Reduces the eficiency of it
Prealbumin is a biomarker for what? Kwashiorkor
What is kwashiorkor? Protein malnutrition
Which one of the following AA is found in the interior of globular proteins? 1. Glutamine2. Serine3. Valine4, TyrosineWhy? Valine because it is non polar! All nonpolar AA do not like H20
Legumes are incomplete because they lack what essential AA? Methionine
Only three aromatic AAs Phenalynine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine
IL-1 is an ___ that is produced by active foam cells that does what? 1. Inflammatory cytokine 2. Inhibits collagen synthesis
Three inflammatory cytokines 1. IL-1 2. IL-6 3. TNF-alpha
What do MMPs do? What does this enzyme need to function? 1. Digests collagen which thins the fibrous cap 2. Zinc and calcium
Frying or grilling meat at high temperatures produce what that may be cancerous? Heterocyclic amines
Does a high protein diet cause kidney disease? Hell no! But it will make the kidneys work a little harder
T or F: Someone with kidney disease should eat a diet high in protein? False
Phosphorylated tau proteins cause what realted to alzheimers? Tangles
What do beat-amyloid plaques do? Creates more ACh esterase which reduce the amount of ACh
Beta-amyloid palque does not produce extra what? Choline
C-reactive proteins is a marker for what? Accute inflammation
Higher levels of C-Reactive proteins means higher levels of what? Inflammation
What can reduce C-Reactive proteins and IL-6 by 30%? Exercise and weight loss
IL-6 and C-reactive proteins are highly concentrated in what? Atrial plaque
What can increase levels of CRP and IL-6 Diet high in protein
RDA says ___ g of protein per kg of body weight. Athletes should get ___ g of proteins. 1. 0.8 g 2. 1.2 to 1.6g
Created by: LrB