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GCSE1 Pollution

AQA GCSE chapter 13 Pollution

Write a word equation to show the combustion of Pentane (a chemical found in crude oil) Pentane + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water (did you say Pentane Oxide ooops; better learn this one!!!)
Write the balanced equation for the reaction of Pentane, a chemical found in crude oil, C5H12 with Oxygen C5H12 + 8 O2  5 CO2 + 6 H2O (always start by writing the word equation! Then formulae! Then balance)
Name two Greenhouse gases Carbon Dioxide and Methane
Describe how the Greenhouse effect warms the Earth 1)Visible rays from the Sun 2) are absorbed by the Earth 3)Earth radiates InfraRed 4)Some IR escapes into space 5)Greenhouse gases absorb IR from Earth 6)this warms the Earth
CHALLENGE: what happens to greenhouse gases when they absorb infrared radiation? the BONDS vibrate more
Why are scientists worried that the levels of Carbon Dioxide are increasing? 1)because CO2 is a greenhouse gas 2)the higher the concentration of greenhouse gases the more heat is absorbed
What is the evidence that increased levels of CO2 cause the Greenhouse effect? There is a correlation over 150 000 of years: the HIGHER CO2 levels, the HIGHER the temperature (a correlation is a MORE MORE statement)
What is the evidence that increased levels of CO2 does NOT cause the Greenhouse effect? Sometimes when the levels of CO2 are high, the temperature decreases (ie the trend is not valid ALL the time)
List 3 possible consequences of global warming 1)rising sea levels; 2)extreme weather pattern 3)changes to climate (amount and timing of rainfall) that may lead to species being wiped out
What is a Carbon Footprint? The amount of Carbon Dioxide and other Greenhouse gases produced by an activity
Describe Carbon Capture and Storage When Carbon Dioxide is trapped, then pumped deep underground in porous rocks, or deep under the ocean
Describe a few measures that the Government can take to reduce the levels of CO2 Taxing fossil fuels; provide incentives to insulate your homes or install renewable sources of energy; encourage biofuels
What is a biofuel? Fuels made from plants; when the next crop of plants grows, it absorbs the CO2 emitted by the combustion of the first crop
Describe a few things that You could do to reduce your carbon footprint Walking/Cycling/take public transport instead of taking cars; taking shorter showers; switch off lights
What is complete combustion? When the products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water only
What is incomplete combustion? When the products of combustion are carbon (soot, also called particulates), carbon monoxide, or carbon dioxide and water
Why is carbon monoxide is poison? Carbon Monoxide binds stronger to the Haemoglobin in the red blood cells; and prevents Oxygen from binding; as Oxygen is not transported anymore, cells are unable to produce energy and die.
Why does incomplete combustion take place? there is not enough oxygen
How does Sulfur Dioxide form? When Sulfur IMPURITIES in the fossil fuels burn in Oxygen
What does Sulfur Dioxide becomes if it goes in the atmosphere? Sulfur Dioxide reacts with water to form Sulfuric Acid
What is the consequence of acid rain lakes are becoming acidic and fih die; the acid rain corrodes metals and limestone buildings
How can we reduce acid rain? neutralise the sulphur dioxide in factories chimneys by reacting the sulphur dioxide with calcium oxide; also by removing sulphur from fossil fuels
How do cars produce Nitrogen Oxides? when the temperature of the engine is HIGH, then the Nitrogen FROM the air reacts with the Oxygen FROM the air
Is this equation balanced? CH4 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O No; there are 4H on the left but only 2 on the right; the correct equation should be CH4 + 2 O2 --> CO2 + 2 H2O
What is the balanced equation for the combustion of methane? CH4 + 2 O2 --> CO2 + 2 H2O
What is the formula of Methane? CH4
What is complete combustion? When there is PLENTY of oxygen for a fuel to burn
What are the products of complete combustion of a Hydrocarbon? Carbon Dioxide and Water
What are the products of Incomplete Combustion? Soot, Carbon Monoxide and Water
What is the Hazard of Carbon Monoxide? Toxic
What is the formula of Carbon Monoxide? CO
What is the formula of Carbon Dioxide? CO2
Why is Sulfur Dioxide produced during combustion of fossil fuels? Because there are Sulphur impurities in the fuel
What is the pollution created by Sulphur Dioxide? Acid Rain
What is the pollution created by Carbon Dioxide? Greenhouse effect
What gas is causing acid rain? Sulphur Dioxide
What gas is causing the Greenhouse effect? Carbon Dioxide
Name a natural source of Carbon Dioxide Volcanic eruption
Name a human activity that produces Carbon Dioxide Burning fossil fuel
Why is there more Carbon Dioxide in Winter than in summer? It is colder so people burn fuel to keep warm
What is the evidence that humans are responsible for causing the Greenhouse effect? Levels of CO2 have increased steadily since the Industrial Revlution
What is the evidence that increased levels of CO2 are due to a natural cause? Levels of CO2 have risen up and down for millions of year.
Name 2 things that chemists are trying to do to remove CO2 from the atmosphere Place iron in the Oceans to encourage plankton growth Convert CO2 into Hydrocarbons
Created by: ursulinechem2