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AQA A1 group 2 and 7

AQA group 2 and 7

QuestionAnswer
Write the simplest IONIC equation for the precipitation of Magnesium Hydroxide Mg+2 + 2 OH-  Mg(OH)2; Check formula of the precipitate; unswap; the ions go as reactants; balance the equation; check states symbols (precipitate=s)
Write the simplest IONIC equation for the reaction of Silver Nitrate with a solution containing Chloride ions Ag+1 + Cl- -->AgCl; FIRST Silver Chloride PRECIPITATE is made: treat this as a precipitation reaction; and/or SNAP ions do not show in ionic equation; Check formula precipitate; unswap; the ions go as reactants; balance the equation; check states symbols
Write the simplest IONIC equation for the reaction of Barium Chloride with Sodium Sulfate Ba+2 + SO4-2- -->Ba(SO4); FIRST: Barium Sulfate PRECIPITATE is made: treat this as a precipitation reaction; and/or SNAP ions do not show in ionic equation; Check formula precipitate; unswap; ions go as reactants; balance equation; check states symbols
Write the equation for the reaction of barium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl  BaCl2 + 2 H2O; check formulae!!!!
Write the equation for the reaction of aluminium oxide with sulfuric acid Al2O3 + 3 H2SO4  Al2(SO4)3 + 3 H2O; check formulae!!!!
Write the equation for the reaction of Barium with water Ba+ 2 H2O  Ba(OH)2 + H2
Write the equation for the reaction of Magnesium with steam Mg+ H2O  MgO + H2
Use oxidation numbers to show that the reaction between Calcium and Water is a redox reaction Ca+ 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2; Ca goes from 0 to +2=oxidation and H from +1 to 0=reduction; work out the oxidation state the elements that not combined first ; inside a compound H is ALWAYS +1 ie in H2O, H is NOT +2!!!!
Describe and explain the trend of reactivity of group 2 metals down the group As you go down the group, metals become more reactive; all have 2 e- in outer shell; as you go down, e- are further away from nucleus; more shielding; less attraction; less energy to remove e- ie to react SCARED
Describe and explain the trend for the melting point of group 2 metals down the group As you go down, mp decreases as the delocalised e- from the outer shell are further away from nucleus, so less attraction between delocalised e- and positive ions=weaker metallic bonds
Describe and explain the trend of 1st IE of group 2 metals down the group As you go down the group, atomic radius increases, e- are further away from nucleus; more shielding; less attraction; less energy to remove e- SCARED
Describe the trend of solubilities of Group 2 hydroxides and group 2 sulfates as you go down teh group As you go down the group, hydroxides become more soluble and sulphates less soluble (HBST=Hydroxide soluble at Bottom and Sulfates at Top)
Explain whybarium hydroxide solution is more alkaline than Magnesium Hydroxide Ba(OH)2 is more soluble than Mg(OH)2 so more Hydroxide ions OH- end up in solution hydroxide ions are alkaline
Explain why patients eat a barium meal even when Barium ions are toxic because the barium meal is barium sulfate; BaSO4 is insoluble so no Barium ION is dissolved, none will cross the intestine wall and go into blood stream
Which group 2 metal does not fit the trend of decreasing melting point as you go down? Magnesium
During the test for sulfate ions, you add acidified Barium Chloride. Why should you NOT use sulphuric acid to acidify? Otherwise the sulfate ions from H2SO4 would react with Barium ions and form a precipitate
What is the least soluble Sulfate of group 2? BaSO4 (HBST)
Describe the explain the trend in boiling point (bp) of the Halogens as you go down the group All Halogens are X2 formula and are simple covalent; all hav VdW forces BETWEEN MOLECULES; as you go down the group, the number of electrons increases so VdW forces BETWEEN MOLECULES will increase
Describe the explain the trend in boiling point (bp) of the Hydrogen Halides HX as you go down the group All HX are simple molecular; all has VdW and pd-pd; as you go down the group, elements are less electronegative so pd is weaker so pd-pd is weaker so bp will decrease (note VdW BTEWEEN MOLECULES increases)
Write the IONIC equation for the reaction between Sodium Bromide and Chlorine 2Br- + Cl2 Br2 + 2Cl-; SNAP ions do not show in an ionic equation; Check formulae; balance the equation; check states symbols
Write the equation between Cl2 and cold water Cl2 + H2O  HCl + HClO; mnemotechnic ClOCl
Write the equation between Cl2 and sodium hydroxide Cl2 + NaOH  NaCl + NaClO +H2O; mnemotechnic ClOCl; but you still need to remember H2O!
Describe and write the IONIC equation for the test for chloride ions add acidified silver nitrate; white precipitate forms; precipitate dissolves in dilute ammonia (did you remember the ammonia part of the test) Ag+ + Cl-  AgCl
Describe and write the IONIC equation for the test for bromide ions add acidified silver nitrate; cream precipitate forms; precipitate dissolves in concentrated ammonia (did you remember the ammonia part of the test) Ag+ + Br-  AgBr
Describe and write the IONIC equation for the test for iodide ions add acidified silver nitrate; yellow precipitate forms; precipitatedoes NOT dissolve in concentrated ammonia (did you remember the ammonia part of the test) Ag+ + I-  AgI
Explain why Nitric acid must be used to acidify the silver nitrate and not Sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid? otherwise precipitates of AgCl or Ag2SO4 form
Why must Barium Chloride or Silver Nitrate be acidified before the tests for SO4-2 or Halide ions? To remove carbonate ions
Write the equation between solid sodium Chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid NaCl + H2SO4  HCl + NaHSO4; mnemotechnic SHWI and SWOB
Describe and explain your observations when solid sodium bromide is placed in concentrated H2SO4 steamy fumes of HBr, and brown fumes of Br2; first NaBr + H2SO4  HBr + NaHSO4; then, the Br- ions reduce the conc H2SO4 (SWOB); note that SO2 is colourless
Describe and explain your observations when solid sodium iodide is placed in concentrated H2SO4 steamy fumes of HI, and black solid of I2 and rotten egg smell of H2S; first NaI + H2SO4  HI + NaHSO4; then, the I- ions reduce the conc H2SO4 (SHWI) ; note that SO2 is colourless
Write the equation between Hydrogen Bromide and concentrated sulphuric acid HBr+ H2SO4 SO2+ H2O+ Br2 ; mnemotechnic SHWI and SWOB
Write the equation between Hydrogen Iodide and concentrated sulphuric acid HI + H2SO4  H2S + H2O + I2; mnemotechnic SHWI and SWOB; then balance
Explain why there is no reaction between Sodium Chloride and Bromine Because Chlorine is a stronger oxidising agent than bromine and will not get displaced, REDUCED. KEYWORDS in Year 12: do not say “more reactive”=describe which is more oxidising; describe which gets REDUCED (ie not merely “displaced”)
Describe and explain the trend of oxidising power of Halogens down the group As you go down the group, outer shell is further away from the nucleus, any extra e- is less likely to be attracted so Iodine LESS likely to become Iodide and GET REDUCED; oxidising power decreases
Describe and explain the trend of reducing power of Halide down the group As you go down the group, outer shell is further away from the nucleus, e- less attracted to nucleus so Iodide MORE likely (than Chloride) to become IodiNe and GET OXIDISED; reducing power increases
Created by: UrsulineChem