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muscular systems


muscle cells muscle fibers
slow twitch fibers dark meat; legs of chicken
fast twitch fibers white meat; breast of chicken
isotonic muscle contraction same tension but length changes
isometric muscle contraction tension changes but length does not
muscle tone does what keep head up and back straight
two types of muscle contractions isotonic & isometric
anaerobic without oxygen
aerobic within oxygen
four major muscle functional characteristics contractility excitability extensibility elasticity
fascia located outside of the epimysium and separates muscles
epimysium skeletal muscles surrounded by connective tissue sheath
perimysium surrounds the fascicle
fascicle the composition of a muscle in bundles; bundles of muscle fibers
endomysium surrounds each fiber
two major kinds of protein fibers actin & myosin
sarcomeres actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units which are joined end to end to form the myofibril
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil
contractility ability to shorten with force
excitability responds to a stimulus
tendon attaches muscle to bone
ligament attaches bone to bone
motor neurons carry action potentials to muscle fibers
action potential brief reversal back of the charge
resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
synaptic cleft location between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
acetylcholine presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter
Z line attachment site for actin
A band extends the length of myosin; the darker central region
I band located on each side of the Z line ; consist of actin
origin most stationary end of the muscle
insertion undergoes the greatest amount of movement
belly between the origin and insertion
points of attachment of each muscle origin and insertion
what are the origin and insertion connected to? to bone by tendons
tetany where the muscle remains retracted without relaxing.
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
threshold point at while muscle fiber will contract maximally
muscle contraction occurs when actin and myosin myofilaments slide past each other causing the sarcomere to shorten
ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate
ATP is produced where mitochondria
ATP is not stable (true or false) true
nomenclatures of muscles are descriptive in what ways they tell size, shape, location, origin, insertion, function, etc.
synergists muscles that work together
antagonist muscles that work opposite of each other
prime mover among synergist if one muscle plays a major role in accomplishing a desired movement
Orbicularis oris puckers lips
Buccinator flattens cheeks
Orbicularis oris and buccinator are kissing muscles
Zygomaticus smiling muscles
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
4 pairs of mastication muscles: 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Mastication chewing
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles shape
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles movement
Neck Muscle Sternocleidomastoid
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
Trunk Muscles Erector spinae
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration.
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration.
Diaphragm Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing
linea alba tendinous area of the abdominal wall
rectus abdominis is located here On each side of the linea alba
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb
intrinsic hand muscles 19 hand muscles
Interossi muscles located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers
Gluteus maximus buttocks.
Sartorius flexes the thigh
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle.
Created by: taracoriell0171
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