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Chapter 15

Ionic Bonding

valence electrons outermost "s" and "p" electrons in an atom
electron dot diagrams depicts valence electrons
lewis dot diagram does not distinguish between "s" and "p" electrons, fills spots one at a time in all four sides (orbitals)
cation a positively charged ion that is formed when an atom loses one or more electrons
anion a negatively charged ion that is formed when an atom gains one or more electrons; monatomic anions are named with an "-ide" ending
noble gases (1) most stable because outermost "s" and "p" subshells are filled (2) of lowest energy and chemical reactivity because of their stable electron configurations
monatomic ion a single atom ion
polyatomic ion a group of atoms with a charge
octet rule states that atoms react by changing the number of their electrons to acquire the stable electron structure of noble gases (full outer shell)
metals obey the octet rule by ___ to form ___ losing electrons...cations
nonmetals obey the octet rule by ___ to form ___ gaining electrons...anions
ionic bond the force of attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together
formula unit collection of independent ions that bond together to form a crystal and has the following properties: (1) composed of cations and anions (2) have a neutral charge (3) held together by ionic bonds
solid crystalline structure a repeating three-dimensional pattern
coordination number the number of oppositely charged ions touching a single ion
(1) the shape of a crystal is determined by the ___ and ___ of the ions charge...size
(2) brittle when a force is applied to an ionic compound, like charges are forced together and in response, the like charges repel and the crystal chatters into many smaller crystals
(3) high melting points determined by the strength of the bond...the stronger the bond, the higher the melting point
(4) not flammable crystal will NOT combust when exposed to direct heat
(5) readily soluble in water ionic compounds easily dissolve in water because they dissociate (separate into individual ions when dissolved in water)
(6) does NOT conduct electricity as a solid must have free movement of charge to conduct electricity crystal structure means ions are "locked" into a fixed position and unable to move freely, thus do not conduct electricity
(7) conducts electricity as a liquid when melted, ionic bonds break, which frees ions and allows them to move freely and thus, conduct electricity
(8) conducts electricity as a solution because ionic compounds dissociate when dissolved in water, the ions are free to move around and thus conduct electricity
representative metals the smallest particle of a substance that keeps the identity of that substance, and come in three types
atom representative part for an ELEMENT
formula unit the representative particle for an IONIC COMPOUND because it is the smallest particle of an ionic compound that keeps the identity of that compound
molecule the representative part for a MOLECULAR COMPOUND
**an ionic compound consists of a cation and an anion ...
metallic bond the attraction between the free floating valence electrons (sea of electrons) and fixed positive nuclei of the metal atoms
**metallic bonds are non-directional ...
properties of metals: ...
(1) malleable (able to be smashed into thin sheets) (2) ductile (able to be put into wire) atoms can slide over one another because metallic bonds are non-directional
(3) good conductors of heat (4) good conductors of electricity sea of electrons allows free floating valence electrons
(5) crystalline structure 1. face centered cubic 2. hexagonal closest packing 3. body centered cubic 4. coordination number
coordination number the number of oppositely charged ions that touch an ion
alloys a solution (mixture combined physically) of metals, which are homogeneous
types of alloys:
substitutional alloy metal atoms mix because they are the same size
interstitial alloy component metals are different sizes, essentially, smaller ones go into bigger ones
Created by: amillion_b