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# phyx eqns Thermal

Heat Transfer Q = mcΔT c= specific heat
Phase Change Q = mL L= latent heat ( fusion or vaporization)
Linear Expansion Δl = α lo ΔT α = coefficient of linear expansion lo = original length
Volume Expansion ΔV = β Vo ΔT β = Coefficient of volume Vo = original volume
Rate of Heat Transfer H = Q/t or H = (k A ΔT) / L k = thermal conductivity A = Cross sectional area L = Distance Between ends
Ideal Gas Law PV= nRT P = pressure V= Volume n= number of moles R= Universal Gas Constant T = Temperature
Average Molecular Kinetic Energy K = 3/2 k T k = Boltzman's Constant
Root-mean-squared velocity v rms = √(3 k T / m)
0th Law of Thermodynamics When A & B are in equilibrium with C. A & B are in Equilibrium with each other.
1st law of Thermodynamics ΔU = ΔQ + W U= Internal Energy Q = Heat Transferred to a System W= Work done on the gas ( if work done by the gas it is negative)
Work done by or on a gas W = -PΔV or W = PΔV
Change in internal energy ΔU = 3/2 NkΔT
Efficiency e = W/ QH W = Output QH = Input
Heat Input QH = W + QL QL = Heat that flows out
Ideal Efficiency e ideal = TH - TL / TH TH = High Temp TL = Low Temp
Change in Entropy ΔS = Q/T Q= Heat added
2nd Law of Thermodynamics The total entropy of any system plus that of its environment increases as a result of any natural process ΔS > 0 ΔS = ΔSs + ΔS env
3rd Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a pure perfect crystal is zero (0) at zero Kelvin (0° K).
Created by: cstephens125