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Chemistry Terms 1

QuestionAnswer
absolute sero The lowest possible temperature, written as 0 Kelvin or -273 degrees celsius
accuracy The closeness of a measurement to an accepted value
activated Complex The intermediate statebetween reactants and products in a chemical reaction; the peak of the potential energy diagram
addition polymerization The joining of unsaturated monomers by a series of addition reactions.
addition reaction The process in which a substance reacts across a double or triple bond in an organic compound.
alcohol An organic compound containing a hydroxyl (-OH) group.
aldehyde An organic compund containing a carbonyl group with at least one hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl carbon.
alkali metal Any group 1 element, excluding hydrogen.
alkaline earth element Any group 2 element.
alkane A hydrocarbon containing only single bonds between adjacent carbon atoms.
alkene A hydrocarbon containing one double bond between two adjacent carbon atoms.
alkyl group An open-chained hydrocarbon less one hydrogen atom; for example, CH3=methyl group, C2H5=ethyl group. Unspecified alkyl groups are designed by the letter R.
alkyne A hydrocarbon containing one triple bond between two adjacent carbon atoms.
allotrope A specific form of an element that can exist in more than one form; graphite and diamond are allotropes of the element carbon.
alloy A solid metallic solution.
alpha decay The radioactive process in which an alpha particle is emitted.
alpha particle A helium-4 particle.
amide An organic compound containing the CONH2 functional group.
amine A hydrocarbon derivative containing an amino group.
amino acid An organic compound containing an amino group.
anhydrous Pertaining to a compound from which the water of crystallization has been removed.
anode The electrode at which oxidation occurs.
aqueous Pertaining to a solution in which water is the solvent.
aromatic hydrocarbon Any ring hydrocarbon whose electronic structure is related to that of benzene.
arrenhius acid Any substance that releases H+ ions in water.
arrenhius base Any substance that releases OH- ions in the water.
atmospheric pressure 1 standard atmospheric (atm)= 101.3 kilopascals.
atom The basic unit of an element.
atomic mass The weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element.
atomic mass unit (u) One-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number defines the element.
atomic radius A measure of the size of an atom.
Avogadro's hypothesis Equal volumes of gases, measured at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of particles.
Avogadro's numbers The number of particles in 1 mole; 6.02 x 10^23.
battery A commercial Voltaic cell.
benzene C6H6; the parent hydrocarbon of all aromatic compounds.
beta decay The radioactive process in which a beta particle is emitted.
beta (-) particle An electron.
beta (+) particle A positron.
binary compound A compound containing two elements.
binding energy The energy released when a nucleus is assembled from its nucleus.
boiling The transition of liquid to gas; boiling occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure above the liquid.
boiling point The temperature at which boiling occurs; the temperture at which liquid and vapor phases of a substance are in equilibrium.
boiling point elevation The increase in the boiling point of a solvent due to the presence of solute particles.
bond energy The energy needed to break a chemical bond.
Boyle's law At constant temperature and mass, the pressure of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to it's volume; P1V1=P2V2.
breeder reactor A fission reactor that generates it's own nuclear fuel.
bright-line spectrum The lines of visible light emitted by elements as electrons fall to lower energy levels.
Bronsted-Lowry acid A substance that can donate H+ ions.
Bronsted Lowry-base A substance that can accept H+ ions.
carbonyl group The functional group characteristic of aldehydes and ketones; C=O.
carboxyl group The functional group characteristics of organic acids; -COOH.
catalyst A substance that speeds a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy of the reaction.
cathode The electrode at which reduction occurs.
celsius (C) scale The temperature scale on which the freezing and boiling points of water (at 1 atm) are set at 0 and 100, respectively.
chain reaction A chemical or nuclear reaction in which one step supplies energy or reactants for the next step.
Charles's law At constant pressure and mass, the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. V1/t1=V2/T2
chemical bond The stabilizing of two atoms by sharing or transferring electrons.
chemical equation A shorthand listing of reactants, products and molar quantities in a chemical reaction.
chemical equilibrium The state in which the rates of the forward reaction and reverse reaction are equal.
coefficient A number in a chemical reaction that indicates how many particles of a reactant or product are required or formed in the reaction.
colligative property A property that depends on the number of particles present rather than the type of particle.
combined (ideal) gas law At constant mass, the products of the pressure and volume divided by the Kelvin temperature is constant; P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2.
compound A combination of two or more elements with a fixed quantity of solute.
concentrated Pertaining to a solution that contains a relatively large quantity of solute.
concentration The "strength" of a solution; the quantity of solute relative to the quantity of solvent.
condensation The change from gas to liquid.
condensation polymerization The joining of monomers by a series of dehydration reactions.
condensation polymerization The joining of monomers by a series of dehydration reactions.
control rod The part of a fission reactor that controls the rate of fission by absorbing neutrons.
coordinate covalent bond A single covalent bond in which the pair of electrons is supplied by one atom.
covalent bond A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons. Between nonmetals to nonmetals.
cracking The process of breaking large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones in order to increase yield of compounds such as gasoline.
crystal A solid whose particles are arraged in a regulary repeating pattern.
decomposition A reaction in which a compound forms two or more simpler substances.
density Mass per unit volume; d=m/v.
deposition The direct transition from gas to solid.
deuterium The isotope of hydrogen with a mass number of 2.
diatomic molecule A neutral particle consisting of two atoms; Br2 and CO are diatomic molecules.
diffusion The movement of one substance through another.
dihydroxy alcohol An organic compound with two hydroxyl groups.
dilute (adj)Pertaining to a solution that contains a realtively small quantity of solute; (verb) to reduce the concentration of a solution by adding solvent.
dipole An unsymmetrical charge distribution in a neutral molecule.
dipole-dipole attraction The attractive force between two oppositely charged dipoles of neighboring polar molecules.
dissociation The seperation of an ionic compound in a solution into positive and negative ions.
distillation The simultaneous boiling of a liquid and condensation of it's vapor.
double bond A covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two adjacent atoms.
ductility The property of a substance that allows it to be drawn into a wire; metallic substances possess ductility.
dynamic equilibrium The state in which the rates of opposing processes are equal.
electrochemical cell A device that produces usable electrical energy from a spontaneous redox reaction.
electrode A conductor in a electrochemical or electrolytic cell that serves as the site of oxidation or reduction.
electrolysis A nonspontaneous redox reaction driven by an external source of electricity.
electrolyte A substance whose aqueous solution conducts electricity.
electrolytic cell A device for carrying out electrolysis.
electron The elementary unit of negative charge.
electronegativity The measure of an atom's attraction for a bonded pair of electrons.
electroplating The use of an electric current to deposit a layer of metal on a negatively charged object.
element A substance all of whose atoms have the same atomic number.
empirical formula A formula in which the elements are present in the smallest whole-number ratio; NO2 is a empirical formula, C2H4 is not.
endothermic reaction A reaction that absorbs energyp; delta H is positive for an endothermic reaction.
end point The point in a titration that signals that equilvalent quantities of reactions have been added.
energy A quantity related to an object's capacity to do work.
enthalpy change (delta H) The heat energy absorbed or released by a system at constant pressure.
entropy (S) The measure of the randomness or disorder of a system.
entropy change (delta S) An increase or decrease in the randomness of a system.
ester The organic product of esterficaiton.
esterification The reaction of an acid with an alcohol to produce an ester and water.
ethanoic acid CH3COOH; acetic acid.
ethanol CH3CH2OH; ethyl (grain) alcohol.
ethene C2H4; ethylene; the partner of the alkene family of hydrocarbons.
ether An organic compound containing the arrangement R-O-R.
ethyne C2H2; acetylene; the parent of the alkyne family of hydrocarbons.
evaporation The surface transition of liquid to gass
excted state A condition in which one or more electrons in an atom are no longer in the lowest possible energy state.
exothermic reaction A reaction that releases energy; delta H is negative for an exothermic reaction.
fermentation The (anaerobic) oxidation of a sigar such as glucose to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide; the reaction is catalyzed by enzymes.
filtration A method of seperating liquid from the particles suspended in it.
first ionization energy The quantity of energy needed to remove the most loosely held electron from an isolated neutral atom.
fission A nuclear reaction in which a heavy nuclide splits to form lighter nuclides and energy.
fission reactor A device for producing electrical energy by means of a controlled fission reaction.
formula mass The sum of the masses of the atoms in a formula; units are atomic mass units (u) or grams per mole (g/mol).
fractional distillation The seperation of organic substances based on differences in their boiling points.
freezing The transition from liquid to solid.
freezing point The temperature at which freezing occurs.
freezing point depression (lowering) The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent due to the presence of solute particles.
fuel rod The part of a nuclear reactor that contains the fissionable material.
functional group An atom or a group of atoms that confers specific properties on a organic molecule.
fusion A synonym for melting; also, a nuclear process in which light nuclides join to form heavier nuclides and produce radiant energy.
fusion reactor An experimental device for producing a controlled fusion reaction and generating electrical energy from it.
gas The phase in which matter has neither definite shape nor definite volume.
gram-atomic mass The molar mass of an element expressed in grams per mole (g/mol).
gram-molecular mass The molar mass of a molecule.
ground state The electron configuration of an atom in the lowest energy state.
group The elements within a single vertical column of the Periodic Table.
half-cell The pary of an electrochemical cell in which oxidation or reduction occurs.
half-life The time needed for a substance to decay to one-half its initial mass.
half-reaction The oxidation or reduction portion of a redox reaction.
halogen An element in Group 17of the Periodic Tablep; F, Cl, Br, I.
heat energy The energy released or absorbed by a system undergoing a change in temperature, in phase, or in composition.
heat of fusion The heat energy absorbed when a unit mass of liquid changes to gas at its boiling point.
heat of reaction The heat absorbed when or released as a result of a chemical reaction.
heat of vaporization The heat energy absorbed when a unit mass of liquad changes to a gas at it's boiling point.
heavy water A molecule of water in which the hydrogen atoms have a mass number of 2; deuterium oxide.
heterogeneous mixture A nonuniform mixture.
homogeneous mixture A mixture with a uniform distribution of particles; a solution is one example.
homologous series A group of organic compounds with related structures and properties; each successive member of the series differs from the onw before it by a specific number of carbon and hydrogen atoms (usually CH2.
hydrate A crystalline compound that has water molecules incorporated into it's crystal structure; common examples include CuSO4 5H2O and Na2SO4 * 10H2O.
hyrdration The associationof water molecules with an ion or another molecule.
hydride A binary compund of an active metal and hydrogen; the molecule.
hydrocarbon An organic compound composed of carbon and hydrogen.
hydrogen bond An unusually strong intermolecular attraction the results when hydrogen is bonded to a small, highly electronegative atome such a F,O or N. H-FON.
hydrolysis A reaction in which a water molecule breaks a chemical bond; the reaction between certain salts and water to produce an excess of hydronium or hydroxide.
hydronium ion H3O+; the conjugate acid of H2O; responsible for acidic properties in water solutions.
hydroxide ion OH-; the conjugate base of H2O; responsible for basic properties in water solutions.
ideal gas A model of gas in which the particles have no volume, do not attract or repel each other, and collide without the loss of energy; real gases approximate ideal gas behavior under conditions of low pressure and high temperature.
ideal gas law The relationship obeyed by an ideal gas.
indicator A substance that undergoes a color chane to signal a change in chemical conditions; acid-base indicators change color over specified pH ranges.
inert (noble) gas An element in Group 18 of the Periodic Table; Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.
inorganic compound A compound that is not a hydrocarbon derivative.
ion A particle in which the numbers of the protons and electrons are not equal.
ion-dipole attraction The attractive force between an ion and the oppositely charged dipole of a neighboring polar molecule.
ionic bond The electrostatic attraction of positive and negative ions in an ionic compound.
Created by: bratney32893