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Phys Waves/Sound

Physics terms associated with waves and sound.

rhythmic disturbance that transmits energy wave
material through which a wave is transmitted medium
describes any wave that required a medium (matter) to move through mechanical
describes any wave that does NOT require a medium (matter) to move through... it can move through a vacuum electromagnetic
type of wave for which the particles of the medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction of wave motion transverse
type of wave for which the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of wave motion longitudinal (compressional)
describes the condition of an undisturbed medium equilibrium (rest) position
upward displacement of a transverse wave crest
downward displacement of a transverse wave trough
displacement of the medium from its rest position (i.e. 'rest to crest') amplitude
distance between corresponding points on consecutive waves wavelength
the number of waves passing a fixed point in a period of time (ex: second) frequency
SI unit of frequency hertz (Hz)
area in a longitudinal wave where the particles of the medium are closer together (corresponds to a 'crest') compression
area in a longitudinal wave where the particles of the medium are farther apart (corresponds to a 'trough') rarefaction
bouncing of waves off an obstacle reflection
equation for calculating the speed of a wave speed = frequency x wavelength
approximate speed of sound in air at 0 ÂșC 330 m/s
state of matter through which sound moves fastest solid
approximate audio (audible) range of frequencies for humans 20 - 20,000 Hz
describes frequencies below about 20 Hz (inaudible to humans) infrasonic
describes frequencies above about 20,000 Hz (inaudible to humans) ultrasonic
human perception of frequency pitch
physics measurement of the energy transmitted by sound intensity
human perception of sound intensity loudness
SI unit of loudness decibel (dB)
average human audible range of sound loudness 0 - 120 decibels
phrase that describes the average minimum sound intensity to which humans are sensitive threshold of hearing
phrase that describes the average maximum sound intensity to which humans are sensitive as sound... intensities higher than this 'hurt' threshold of pain
change in frequency of a sound due to relative motion of the source with respect to the receiver Doppler effect
describes sounds in the environment that are too loud, annoying, or harmful to the ear noise pollution
describes a random mixture of sound intensities and frequencies noise
describes sound characterized by specific pitches, patterns, and 'quality' music
pitch of a specific frequency as defined by a particular musical scale note
frequency of the note 'middle C' 256 Hz
describes the interval between two notes, one of which has twice the frequency of the other octave
a combination of frequencies whose ratio is 4:5:6:8 major chord
refers to the combining of displacements of two waves that meet interference
describes interference between waves that increases the overall displacement constructive
describes interference between waves that decreases the overall displacement destructive
product of interference between incident and reflected waves such that particular points remain fixed while others between them vibrate with the maximum amplitude standing wave
frequency of a standing wave that causes the medium (ex: string) to vibrate as a whole fundamental (1st harmonic)
frequency of a standing wave that causes the medium (ex: string) to vibrate in two parts 1st overtone (2nd harmonic)
frequency of a standing wave that causes the medium (ex: string) to vibrate in three parts 2nd overtone (3rd harmonic)
part of a standing wave at which destructive interference occurs node
part of a standing wave at which constructive interference occurs antinode (lobe)
describes the harmonic content (ex: fundamental + overtones) of a note played on an instrument that helps identify its voice quality
a single reflected sound echo
prolonging of sound due to multiple echoes reverberation
the increase & decrease in loudness when two notes of dissimilar frequency are played together (sounds like a 'wah') beat
the 4 'wah's' per second that are heard when tuning forks with frequencies of 256 and 260 are sounded simultaneously beat frequency
process that occurs when a tuning fork of a certain frequency is struck and a nearby tuning fork with the same frequency begins to vibrate resonance
increase in loudness of a tuning fork when its base is touched to something like a desk top, causing the desk to also vibrate at its frequency forced vibration
the study (and control) of sound acoustics
change in direction of a wave when it crosses a boundary (obliquely) between 2 media in which it has different speeds refraction
bending of waves around obstacles or through openings differaction
pattern of constructive and destructive interference that occurs when waves pass through two closely-spaced openings double slit diffraction pattern
areas in a double slit diffraction pattern where constructive interference occurs lines of reinforcement
areas in a double slit diffraction pattern where destructive interference occurs nodal lines
Created by: goakley
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