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Chem 110-Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
Aqueous Solution A solution in which water is the solvent.
Colligative Property A physical property of a solution that depends only on the number (concentration) of solute particles (molecules or ions) present in a given quantity of solvent and not on their chemical identities.
Colloidal Dispersion A mixture that contains dispersed particles that are intermediate in size between those of a true solution and those of an ordinary heterogenous mixture.
Concentrated Solution A solution that contains a large amount of solute relative to the amount that could dissolve.
Concentration The amount of solute present in a specified amount of solution.
Dialysis The process in which semipermeable membrane allows the passage of solvent, dissolved ions, and small molecules, but blocks the passage of colloidal-sized particles and large molecules.
Dilute Solution A solution that contains a small amount of solute relative to the amount that could dissolve.
Dilution The process in which more solvent is added to a solution in order to lower its concentration.
Hypertonic Solution A solution with a higher osmotic pressure than that found within cells.
Hypotonic Solution A solution with a lower osmotic pressure than that found within cells.
Isotonic Solution A solution with an osmotic pressure that is equal to that within cells.
Mass-volume Percent The mass of solute in a solution (in grams) divided by the total volume of solution (in millimeters), multiplied by 100.
Molarity The moles of solute in a solution divided by the liters of solution.
Nonaqueous Solution A solution in which a substance other than water is the solvent.
Osmolarity The product of a solutions molarity and the number of particles produced per formula unit if the solute dissociates.
Osmosis The passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane separating a dilute solution (or pure solvent) from a more concentrated solution.
Osmotic Pressure The pressure that must be applied to prevent the net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration.
Percent by Mass The mass of solute in a solution divided by the total mass of solution, multiplied by 100.
Percent by Volume The volume of solute in a solution divided by the total volume of solution, multiplied by 100.
Saturated Solution A solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved under the conditions at which the solution exists.
Semipermeable Membrane A membrane that allows certain types of molecules to pass through it but prohibits the passage of other types of molecules.
Solubility The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent under a particular set of conditions.
Solute A component of a solution that is present in a lesser amount relative to that of the solvent.
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity.
Solvent The component of a solution that is present in the greatest amount.
Supersaturated Solution An unstable solution that temporarily contains more dissolved solute than that present in a saturated solution.
Unsaturated Solution A solution that contains less than the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved under the conditions at which the solution exists.
Created by: maevans31