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Chem 110-Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
Barometer A device used to measure atmospheric pressure.
Boiling A form of evaporation where conversion from the liquid state to the vapor state occurs within the body of the liquid through bubble formation.
Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes equal to the external atmospheric pressure exerted on the liquid.
Boyle's Law The volume of a fixed amount of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure applied to the gas if the temperature is kept constant. (P1/P2)=(V2/V1)
Change of State A process in which a substance is changed from one physical state to another physical state.
Charles' Law The volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant. ***Always use Kelvin (add 273 to C) (T1/T2)=(V1/V2)
Combined Gas Law A measure of the change in volume in a sample of matter resulting from a pressure change. (P1V1/T1)=(P2V2/T2)
Compressibility A measure of the change in volume in a sample of matter resulting from a pressure change.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases present. (Ptotal)=P1+P2+P3+...
Dipole-Dipole Interaction An intermolecular force that occurs between polar molecules. (Attraction between polar molecules)
Electrostatic Interaction An attraction or repulsion that occurs between charged particles.
Endothermic Change of State A change of state in which heat energy is absorbed.
Equilibrium A condition in which two opposite processes take place at the same rate.
Evaporation The process in which molecules escape from the liquid phase to the gas phase.
Exothermic Change of State A change of state in which heat energy is given off.
Gas The physical state characterized by an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume; the physical state characterized by a complete dominance of kinetic energy (disruptive forces) over potential energy (cohesive forces).
Gas Law A generalization that describes in mathematical terms the relationships among the amount, pressure, temperature, and volume of a gas. (P1V1/T1)=(P2V2/T2) P2=(P1V1/T1)(T2/V2) V2=(P1V1/T1)(T2/P2) T2=(T1/P1V1)(P2V2)
Hydrogen Bond An extra strong dipole-dipole interaction between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a small, very electronegative element (F,O, or N) and a lone pair of electrons on another small, very electronegative element (F,O, or N).
Ideal Gas Law A general mathematical expression relating pressure, temperature, volume, and amounth for a gas. (pV=nRT) or (pV/nT)=R R=ideal gas CONSTANT -0.0821 L.atm/mol.k
Intermolecular Force An attractive force that acts between a molecule and another molecule.
Kinetic Energy Energy that matter possesses because of particle motion.
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter (KMT) A set of five statements that are esed to explain the physical behavior of the three states of matter (solids, liquids, and gases).
Liquid The physical state characterized by an indefinite shape and a definite volume; the physical state characterized by potential energy (cohesive forces) and kinetic energy (disruptive forces) of about the same magnitude.
London Force A weak temporary intermolecular force that occurs.
Normal Boiling Point The temperature at which liquid boils when under a pressure of 760 mm Hg.
Partial Pressure The pressure that a gas in a mixture of gases would exert if it were present alone under the same conditions.
Potential Energy Stored energy that matter possesses as a result of its position, condition, and/or chemical composition.
Pressure The force applied per unit area on an object; the force on a surface divided by the area of that surface.
Solid The physical state characterized by a definite shape and a definite volume; the physical state characterized by a dominance of potential energy (cohesive forces) over kinetic energy (disruptive forces).
Thermal Expansion A measure of the change in volume of a sample of matter resulting from a temperature change.
Vapor A gas that exists at a temperature and pressure at which it would ordinarily be thought of as a liquid or a solid.
Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor above a liquid when the liquid and vapor are in equilibrium with each other.
Volatile Substance A substance that readily evaporates at room temperature because of a high vapor pressure.
Four Important Gas Variables 1. n=number of moles ->n=mass/MM 2. T=temperature; must be in KELVIN ->K=C+273 3. V=volume, usually measured in Liters ->1000 mL= 1 L 4. P=pressure=force/area ->1 atm=760 mm Hg= 760 tor
Directly Proportional If the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable also increases. (A1/A2)=(B1/B2)
Inversely Proportional If the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases. (A1/A2)=(B2/B1)
Created by: maevans31