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Phys Momentum Energy

Terms/concepts associated with momentum and conservation of energy.

QuestionAnswer
impulse-momentum theorem (math form) F•∆t = m•∆v
quantity of motion (p) possessed by a moving object momentum
equation for calculating momentum p = m•v
quantity calculated by the equation "F•∆t" impulse
SI unit of force newton (N)
SI unit of time second (s)
SI unit of mass kilogram (kg)
SI unit of velocity m/s
SI unit of momentum kg•m/s
SI unit of impulse N•s
3 auto safety features that increase stopping time during collisions to reduce the force of the collision seat belts, crumple zones, air bags, dentable bumpers...
for every action force, there is an equal magnitude but opposite direction force that acts Newton's 3rd law of motion
what is the reaction to the action of a bullet being expelled from a gun? the gun's "kick"
what is the reaction to the action of a rocket's exhaust being expelled downward/backward? the rocket moves upward/forward
the total momentum of a closed, isolated system is constant law of conservation of momentum
a collection of interacting bodies being analyzed the system
describes a system that no objects move in or out of closed system
describes a system on which no external (outside) forces act isolated
a force that acts from outside a system and CAN cause a change in the system's total momentum external force
a force that acts from within a system and CANNOT cause a change in the system's total momentum internal force
how can a moving bowling ball and baseball have the same momentum? if the baseball is moving faster than the bowling ball proportional to how much larger is the mass of the bowling ball
quantity in rotational motion analogous to mass in linear motion rotational inertia OR moment of inertia
how should mass be distributed in a rotating body so that it is hardest to change it's rate of rotation? as far as possible from the axis of rotation
device used on old-fashioned machinery that possesses a large angular (rotational) momentum to help them run more smoothly flywheel
quantity in rotational motion analogous to force in linear motion, it causes an object to undergo angular acceleration torque
energy may change form but the total amount remains constant Law on Conservation of Energy
that which has the ability to cause change energy
energy possessed by a moving object kinetic
energy possessed by an object due to its position or condition potential
energy form possessed by an object raised above Earth gravitational
sum of the potential and kinetic energy of an object as a whole
a change in energy from one form to another transformation
energy form that includes visible light, X-rays, and radio waves radiant energy
energy possessed (by virtue of the bonds) in foods and fuels chemical energy
under what condition can you move an object but do no work on the object? carry it
SI unit of energy joule (J)
SI unit of work joule (J)
measures the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter temperature
the transfer of energy through motion work
energy transformation performed by a toaster electrical to thermal
energy transformation performed by an LED bulb electrical to radiant
energy transformation performed by a "Hot Hands" hand warmer chemical to thermal
energy transformation performed by a green plant radiant to chemical
energy transformation performed by a dry cell battery chemical to electrical
energy transformation performed by a conventional combustion (car) engine chemical to mechanical
energy transformation performed by a photocell radiant to electrical
energy transformation performed by an oscillating fan electrical to mechanical
energy transformation performed by a (Halloween) glowstick chemical to radiant
total energy (kinetic + potential) possessed by the particles in a sample of matter thermal energy
'direction' in which thermal energy always transfers warmer to cooler
its basic assumptions include: 1)matter is made of particles 2)the particles are always moving 3)temperature measures the average particle motion kinetic theory of matter
SI unit of heat joule (J)
old unit of heat equal to 4.184 J calorie
unit that measures food's energy content (equal to 1000 cal) kilocalorie OR Calorie
energy required to change the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celcius (or Kelvin) specific heat
device used (in lab) to measure changes in thermal energy of water caused by the addition of warm/cold materials or, for example, from the energy released when foods are 'burned' calorimeter
substance that has unusually high specific heat and whose presence has a moderating affect
Created by: goakley