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GCSE6 atomic struct

AQA GCSE chapter 01 atomic structure

What 3 particles are found in an atom? Neutrons, Protons and Electrons
What 2 particles are found in the Nucleus? Neutrons, Protons; yo. the heavy ones, man!
What particle is going around the Nucleus? Electrons
What is the name of the circles described by electrons? Shells or Orbits
What particle is positive? Pppproton are pppositive
What particle is neutral (=no charge)? Neutron
What is the charge on an electron? Negative
What two particles are found in the same number in an Atom? Protons(p+) and Electrons(e-)
What is the mass number of an atom with 17p+, 17e- and 18n0? 17(p+) + 18(n0) = 35
What is the MAXIMUM number of electron on the 1st shell? On the 2nd? On the 3rd? 2,8,8
What is the electronic arrangement for an atom with 17e-? 2,8,7
An element isin group 6. What can you say about the number of electrons in the outer shell? 6 electrons on the outer shell (same number as the group number)
What are isotopes? Atoms of the same elements, with SAME number of PROTONS (ie same atomic number), but DIFFERENT number of NEUTRONS (ie different mass numbers)
There are two isotopes of Boron: 20% of the atoms are Boron-10 (Boron with a mass number of of 10) and 80% are Boron-11. What is the relative Atomic Mass? 20/100*10 + 80/100*11 = 10.8
There are two isotopes of Chlorine: Chlorine-35 and Chlorine-37. The relative atomic mass of Chlorine is 35.5. What does this tell you about the abundance of Chlorine-35 (compared to the abundance of Chlorine-37) [which isotope is more abundant?] As the RAM is closer to 35 than 37, it means that there is more Chlorine-35 than Chlorine-37
Potassium has two numbers: 39 at the top and and 19 at the bottom. How many protons electrons and neutrons? The number at the bottom (atomic) tells us 19 protons, 19 electrons; the difference between the two numbers is the number of neutrons: 20.
Antimony has two isotopes of mass 121 and mass 123 and a Relative Atomic Mass of 121.8. What can you say about the proportion of the isotopes (ie which isotope is most abundant) As the RAM is closer to 121 than 123, there are more isotopes of mass 121 than 123.
Where are metals found in the Periodic Table? On the left
What did Mendeleev do compared to previous versions of the Periodic Table? Why was Mendeleev's attempt superior to previous attempts? He did not organise elements by atomic weight; he organised them by reactivity patterns (even swapped elements like I and Te); he also left gaps for undiscovered elements and made predictions about missing elements
How are elements organised in the modern periodic table? By atomic number
What is the number of electrons in Chlorine atom (bottom number is 17, group 7)? Give its electronic configuration Atom=17 (look directly at bottom number); 2,8,7
What is the number of electrons in Magnesium atom (bottom number is 12, group 2)? Give its electronic configuration Atom=12 (look directly at bottom number); 2,8,1
CHALLENGE: The Relative Atomic Mass of Copper is 63.5. Copper has only two isotopes of mass 63 and 65. Work out the abundance of each isotope. Write formula: RAM=sum of (massxabund)/tot abund ie 63.5=(63x a + 65 x (100-a))/100 and rearrange the equation so that a is the subject: a=75; so abundance of 63-Cu is75% and 65-Cu is 25%
What is the definition of Relative Atomic Mass RAM is the weighed average mass of the isotopes of an element, compared to 1/12th of the mass of a Carbon12 atom
Order the following scientist in chronological order: from earliest to most recent: Rutherford, Bohr, Dalton, Chadwik, Thompson Dalton (atoms are spheres), Thomson (electron), Rutherford(nucleus), Bohr (electrons on shells), Chadwick (neutron)
Describe the gold foil experimental set-up, the results and the conclusion Rutherford fired positively charged alpha particles at a thin gold film. most of the alpha particles passed straight through undeviated; some were deflected through large angles, even backwards. This meant that
Explain why the gold-foil experiment proved that ‘plum-pudding’ model should be abandoned because the plum-pudding model prediced that the alpha-particles should go straight through; it simply could not explain the deviation of the alpha particles and the fact that a few alpha particles were repelled backwards.
How much smaller is a nucleus compared to the atom? a nucleus is 10,000 times smaller than the atom
CHALLENGE: if an atom is 10^-10m long, how big is the nucleus? a nucleus is 10,000 times smaller than the atom; so the nucleus is 10^-14m
Created by: ursulinechem2