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# 14.2.) Measurement

### Excursions of Modern Mathematics

TermDefinition
Poll A survey in which the data collection involves asking questions and recording answers.
Sampling Proportion Percentage or proportion of the population represented by the sampling.
Biased Sample (Sampling Bias) A sample in which not every member of the population had an equal chance of being included.
Selection Bias A bias that occurs when some members of the population have no chance of being included in the sample.
Target Population The population to which the conclusions of the survey apply.
Sampling Frame The population from which the sample is drawn.
Convenience Sampling Sampling strategy based on selecting the most convenient individuals to be in the sample.
Self-selection Bias A type of bias that results when the sample consists of individuals who volunteer to be in the sample.
Quota Sampling A sampling method that uses quotas as a way to force the sample to be representative of the population.
Response Rate The percentage of respondents in a poll out of the total sample size.
Non-response Bias A type of bias that results from having low response rates.
Simple Random Sampling A sampling method where any group of individuals in a population has the same chance of being in the sample as any other group of equal size.
Stratified Sampling A sampling method that uses several layers of strata and sub-strata and chooses the sample by a process of random selection within each layer.
Sampling Error The distance between a parameter and a statistic obtained from a sampling.
Sampling Variability The natural variability of the statistics obtained by different samples of the same population, even when the samples are chosen using the same methodology.
Systematic Sampling Poll every nth person at a particular location and only counting the responses from the person regardless if they respond or not.
Cluster Sampling Breaks the sampling frame into categories called strata. A random sample is then chosen from the strata. A whole group is selected rather than parts of each strata.
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