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Organic Chemistry 1

Define Organic Chemistry The study of compounds of carbon
What is a hydrocarbon? A compound containing hydrogen and carbon only
What is a fossil fuel? A fuel composed from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago
Define the term saturated compound A compound in which only singe bonds are present
Define the term homologous series A series of compounds of similar chemical properties. Which show graduations in physical properties. Each has a general formula. Each has a similar method of preparation. Each member differs from the previous by a methylene (CH4) molecule
What is a structural isomer? Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
Give two tests for unsaturation Bromine water & Potassium permanganate
Name an Alkyne Ethyne
Define the term aliphatic compound An organic compound with open chains of carbon atoms and close chain compounds that resemble them in chemical properties
Define the term aromatic compound Compounds with a benzene ring structure in their molecules
How does fractional distillation work? Crude oil enters a furnace as feed-stock and the chemicals inside are separated out according to boiling point at the temperature decreases up the furnace
What is the top fraction, refinery gas, used for? LPG, for gas cookers
What is petrol used for? Cars
What is Naptha used for? Chemicals for the petrochemical industry e.g. feed-stock for petrol
What is kerosene used for? Fueling aircraft ¢ral heating
What is diesel oil used for? Trains, buses, trucks and cars
What is lubricating oil used for? Waxes and polishes
What is fuel oil used for? Fuel for ships and industry
What is Bitumen/Residue used for? Roads and roofing
Define auto ignition The premature ignition of a petrol air mixture
Define octane number The tendency of a fuel to resist auto ignition
Name 3 factors affecting octane number Chain length, degree of branching and straight chain or cyclic structure
Name a fuel with an octane rating of zero Heptane
Name a chemical with an octane rating of 100 2,2,4-trimethylpentane
Name four processes used to improve octane rating Adding oxygenates. De-hydrocyclisation. Isomerisation. Catalytic cracking.
Created by: JackEatonK98