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Section 2

Notes from CRC Exam Prep Book

QuestionAnswer
What is their interaction between in the disability experience? Environment forces, psycho-social factors, and diversity factors
What do definitions of disability do? Help to identify the location of the problem and who is held responsible for the solution?
What is the biomedical model of disability?  Longest history  Defines disability as pathology located within the individual and is a deviation from the norm.  Treatment is focused on ‘fixing’ the individual.
What is the Environmental model of disability?  Suggests that the individual’s environment may cause, define, or exaggerate the disability  Ex: paraplegic without a wheelchair
What is the functional model of disability?  Suggests that the functions of the individual influence the definition of the disability  Ex: individual who is physically active would be much more affected by mobility impairments.
What is the sociopolitical model of disability?  Also known as Minority Group model or Independent living model  Proposes that disability is not a personal attribute, but caused by society, and thus society should bear the responsibility for dealing with disability
What is World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning? a contemporary, biopsychosocial approach to defining disability that considers the environmental, functional, and social models
What are the WHO ICF model’s five areas of disability?  Body functions and structures  Activities  Participation  Personal factors  Environmental factors
What is The annual economic losses related to disability for persons with moderate disabilities? $54.1 billion
The annual economic losses related to disability for persons with severe disabilities? $122.6 billion
What are high unemployment rate of PWDs are due in part to? o Prejudice and discrimination o Worksite inaccessibility o Financial disincentives built into many government programs (SSI, SSDI)
When do Financial disincentives occur ? when individuals are faced with the loss of benefits, including health insurance, if they accept a job.
What are Environmental factors that present barriers to rehab Social support systems Rest. mobility Rest. transportation Architectural barriers Frequency and duration of hospitalizations Unavailable institutional support Living conditions Availability of job opportunities Inaccessibility of worksites.
What are Attitudes? observable consequences of customs, practices, ideologies, values, norms, factual beliefs, and religious beliefs.
What is a stereotype? an exaggerated belief associated with a category
what is prejudice? negative generalization toward a group of people and the assumption that an individual belonging to that group has those characteristics
What is discrimination? action carried out based on prejudice
What is stigma? encompasses problems associated with stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination
What is the hierarchy of preferences by general public? People hold more favorable attitudes toward persons with physical disabilities than individuals with mental disabilities and tend to have more positive attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities than those with psychiatric disabilities.
What are conscious and subconscious reactions to disability? Inaccurate perceptions Underestimation of abilities Stereotypical impressions Paternalistic treatment approaches Fatalistic or passive therapeutic stances Exaggeration of psychopathology Psychological adjustment is underestimated
What are Interventions for Rehab counselors to change attitudes? o Contact or personal experience o Information and education o Protest o Affirmative action or legislative/political efforts o Impression management
What is adaptation? dynamic process that a PWD experiences to achieve the final state of optimal person-environment congruence known as adjustment
What is acceptance? outcome in which the disability is incorporated as a part of the individual’s self-concept and is accepted as nondevaluing
What are the strategies to cope with stressors associated with a disability? Cognitive, behavioral, affective
What is the cognitive stressor? Refers to how an individual chooses to think
What is the behavioral stressor? Refers to actions taken to manage the disability
What is the affective stressor? Refers to how the individual feels about the disability and how he or she manages the emotions associated with the disability
Who coined the coping versus succumbing model? Wright
What is coping in the model? Person emphasizes the negative effects of the disability and neglects the challenge for change and meaningful adaptation
What is the succumbing in the model? Person focuses on their individual assets and are oriented toward what they can do
What are Wright's four major value changes that reflect acceptance? o Enlargement of the scope of values o Subordination of the physique o Containment of disability effects o Transformation from comparative status to asset values
What are Allport's common stereotypic views from PWDs stem from? o Safety threat o Ambiguity of disability o Salience of the disability o Spread/Over generalization o Moral accountability for the cause o Inferred emotional consequences of the disability o Fear of acquiring a disability
What are the the stages of adjustment? o Shock o Denial o Anger o Depression o Adaptation
What is culture? involves the beliefs, customs, practices, social behaviors, and set of attitudes of a particular nation or group of people
What is worldview? the framework of ideas and beliefs through which an individual interprets the world and interacts with it based on their philosophy, values, emotions, and ethics.
What does the Deaf culture reject? the notion of group members having a disability as opposed to a different communication modality in a hearing world.
Who were the VR programs initially for? WWI veterans (MEN)
What should VR counselors be conscientious of when working with women? vocational aspirations by understanding their knowledge of occupations, work values, and career goals.
M or F: Who has more favorable opinions toward PWD? Females
M or F: Who questions their ability to succeed in different occupations? Females
M or F: Who may question their ability to balance family, home, career? Females
M or F: Who may experience double discrimination? Females
M or F: Who may experience loss as an assault to themselves that leads to greater loss of identity? Females
M or F: Who may experience higher rates of depression and grief? Females
M or F: Society values and rewards, physical capacity, loss of functioning can be significantly challenging for who? Males
M or F: Who define themselves through their vocation or career? Males
M or F: For who does Loss of career = loss of identity? Males
M or F: Who often cope with sadness and grief through distraction? Males
Who experiences greater sexual difficulties with a spinal cord injury? Men
Who has greater difficulty socially with HIV and why? Women are more socially isolated and have issues with pregnancy
Who returns to work sooner with a myocardial infarction? Men
How can Rehab counselors prevent gender stereotyping? o Evaluate attitudes and stereotypes possessed o Examine behavior through self-examination questions
What can Rehab counselors be aware of that can increase effectiveness of services for LGBTQQIA? Heterosexism and its role in societal expectations Their own heterosexist attitudes APA guidelines for psychotherapy with clients Multiple identity factors and developmental tasks, ethnic, and cultural aspects
Rehab counselors can increase effectiveness of services for LGBTQQIA by having comprehensive knowledge of what? o Sexual orientation/identity development models o Coming out process o Same sex relationships o What it means to be HIV positive o Parenting and family concerns o Unique experiences of LGBTQQIA ethnic minorities o Religious and/or aging issues
When dealing with end of life care for terminally ill clients, the CRCC Code of Ethics declares that rehab counselors take measures that enable clients to do what? o Obtain high-quality end of life care o Self-determination o Be given every opportunity possible to engage in informed decision o Receive complete and adequate assessment regarding their ability to make decisions on their own behalf experienced MHP