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5th Grade Math Vocab

Angle - A shape formed by two line segments or rays that share the same endpoint
Area - The measure of the number of unit squares needed to cover a surface
Array - An arrangement of objects in rows and columns
Associative Property of Addition - When the grouping of addends is changed, the sum is the same Example: (5 + 8) + 4 = 5 + (8 + 4)
Addend - A number that is added to another in an addition problem
Addition - Finding the total number of items when two or more groups of items are joined
Associative Property of Multiplication - Factors can be grouped in different ways and still get the same product Example: (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4)
Balance - Equalize in weight or number
Bar Graph - Graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to display countable data
Benchmark - A familiar number used as a point of reference
Common Denominator - A common multiple of two or more denominators
Common Factor - A number that is a factor of two or more numbers
Common Multiple - A number that is a multiple of two or more numbers
Commutative Property of Addition - When the order of two addends is changed, the sum is the same Example: 4 + 5 = 5 + 4
Commutative Property of Multiplication - When the order of two factors is changed, the product is the same Example: 4 × 5 = 5 × 4
Compatible Numbers - Numbers that are easy to compute with mentally
Composite Number - A number having more than two factors
Counting Number - A whole number that can be used to count a set of objects (1, 2, 3, 4, . . .)
Decimal - A number with one or more digits to the right of the decimal point
Decimal Point - Separate dollars from cents in money and separates the ones place from the tenths place in a decimal
Decimal System - A system of computation based on the number 10
Denominator - The number below the bar in a fraction - equal parts are in the whole or in the group
Difference - The answer to a subtraction problem
Digit - Any one of the ten symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 used to write numbers
Distributive Property - Multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend in the sum by the number and then adding the products Ex: 3 × (4 + 2) = (3 × 4) + (3 × 2) 3 × 6 = 12 + 6 18 = 18
Divide - To separate into equal groups; the opposite operation of multiplication
Dividend - The number that is to be divided in a division problem
Divisible - A number is evenly divisible by another number
Division - Process of finding equal groups or how many items will be in each equal group; the opposite operation of multiplication
Divisor - The number that divides the dividend
Dot Plot - A graph that records each piece of data along a number line
Equation - An algebraic or numerical sentence that shows that two quantities are equal
Equivalent Decimals - Decimals that name the same amount
Equivalent Fractions - Fractions that name the same amount or part
Estimate - A number close to an exact amount
Even - A whole number that has a 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 in the ones place
Expanded Form - A way to write numbers by showing the value of each digit Examples: 832 = 800 + 30 + 2
Expression - A mathematical phrase that does not have an equal sign
Fact Family/Related Facts - A set of related multiplication and division, or addition and subtraction, equations
Factor - A number multiplied by another number to find a product
Fraction - Names a part of a whole or a part of a group
Fraction Greater Than 1 - Numerator is greater than its denominator
Frequency - The number of times an event occurs
Frequency Table - A table that uses numbers to record data about how often something happens
Greater Than - >
Greater Than or Equal To -
Greatest Common Factor - The greatest factor that two or more numbers have in common
Grid - Evenly divided and equally spaced squares on a figure or flat surface
Horizontal - Extending left and right
Hundredths - One of 100 equal parts
Identity Property of Addition - When you add zero to a number, the result is that number
Identity Property of Multiplication - The product of any number and 1 is that number
Inequality - A mathematical sentence that contains the symbol <, >, ≤, ≥, or ≠
Inverse Operations - Opposite operations, or operations that undo each other
Least Common Denominator - The least common multiple of two or more denominators
Least Common Multiple - The least number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers
Less Than - <
Less Than or Equal to (≤) -
Line - straight path in a plane, extending in both directions with no endpoints
Line Segment - A part of a line that includes two points called endpoints and all the points between them
Mass - The amount of matter in an object
Mixed Number - A number that is made up of a whole number and a fraction
Multiple - The product of two counting numbers is a multiple of each of those numbers
Multiplication - Find the total number of items made up of equal-sized groups or to find the total number of items in a given number of groups
Multiply - Combine equal groups
Not Equal To -
Number Line - A line on which numbers can be located
Numerator - The number above the bar in a fraction - how many equal parts of the whole or group are being considered
Numerical Expression - A mathematical phrase that uses only numbers and operation signs
Overestimate - An estimate that is greater than the exact answer
Pan Balance - An instrument used to weigh objects and to compare the weights of objects
Parentheses - The symbols used to show which operation or operations in an expression should be done first
Partial Product - A method of multiplying in which the ones, tens, hundreds, and so on are multiplied separately and then the products are added together
Partial Quotient - A method of dividing in which multiples of the divisor are subtracted from the dividend and then the quotients are added together
Pattern - An ordered set of numbers or objects; the order helps you predict what will come next Examples: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10
Perimeter - The distance around a closed plane figure
Period - Each group of three digits separated by commas in a multi-digit number Example: 85,643,900 has three periods.
Pictograph - A graph that uses pictures to show and compare information
Place Value - The value of each digit in a number based on the location of the digit
Prime Number - A number that has exactly two factors: 1 and itself
Product - The answer to a multiplication problem
Profit - The amount left after all the expenses are subtracted from the amount of money received from selling an item or service
Quotient - The number, not including the remainder, that results from dividing
Range - The difference between the greatest and least numbers in a group
Regroup - To exchange amounts of equal value to rename a number Example: 5 + 8 = 13 ones or 1 ten 3 ones
Remainder - The amount left over when a number cannot be divided equally
Right Angle - An angle that forms a square corner and has a measure of 90˚
Right Triangle - A triangle that has a right angle
Round - To replace a number with one that is simpler and is approximately the same size as the original number
Scale - A series of numbers placed at fixed distances on a graph to help label the graph
Scatter Plot - A graph that shows a relationship between two sets of data
Simplest Form - A fraction when the numerator and denominator have only 1 as a common factor
Simplify - To find the value of a numerical expression
Skip Count - A pattern of counting forward or backward Example: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, . . .
Solution - A value that makes an equation true
Standard Form - A way to write numbers by using the digits 0-9, with each digit having a place value Example: 456 standard form
Stem-and-Leaf Plot - A graph that shows groups of data arranged by place value
Straight Angle - An angle whose measure is 180°
Subtraction - Process of finding how many are left when a number of items are taken away from a group of items
Sum - The answer to an addition problem
Tenth - One of ten equal parts
Thousandths - One of one thousand equal parts
Underestimate - An estimate that is less than the exact answer
Unit Fraction - A fraction that has 1 as a numerator
Variable - A letter or symbol that stands for an unknown number or numbers
Venn Diagram - A diagram that shows relationships among sets of things
Vertical - Extending up and down
Weight - How heavy an object is
Whole - All of the parts of a shape or group
Whole Number - One of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
Word Form - A way to write numbers in standard English
Zero Property of Multiplication - The property that states that when you multiply by zero, the product is zero
Equal to/ Equivalent - Having the same value
Created by: kristyvland