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Chem CH 2

The Periodic Table created by Late 1800's by Mendeleev (during dream)
Elements represented by Chemical Symbols: 1-3 letters; 1st letter is capitalized
Elements are divided into 3 groups - metals - metalloids - nonmetals
Metals left side of PT shiny, malleable, ductile good conductors of electricity
Nonmetals right side of PT dull poor conductors opposite of metals
Metalloids along zigzag lines properties of metals & nonmetals
What are the building blocks of life? Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen all four are nonmetals
How much mass of human body does the building blocks of life take up? 96%
Periodic Law properties repeat themselves when elements are arranged in orders of increasing Atomic #
Family/Groups vertical columns 1A-8A
Period horizontal row numbered
Special Groups of Elements - Alkali Metals - Alkaline Earth Metals - Transition Metals - Halogen - Noble Gases
Alkali Metals 1A Vert Reactive
Alkaline Earth Metals 2A Reactive
Transition Metals "B" Block
Halogen 7A Diatonic Elements
Noble Gases 8A Stable
Who came up with structure of the atom? John Dalton
All matter is made up of particles called? atoms
All atoms of the same element are ______________ & ______________atoms of other elements identical to one another; different from
____________ of 2+ elements combined to form __________ atoms; compounds
A ___________ ___________ involves the rearrangement of __________ chemical reaction; atoms
Subatomic Particles - Protons - Neurons - Electrons
Protons p+ 1 positive charge inside nucleus
Neutron N 1 neutral charge inside nucleus
Electron E- 1/1840 negative charge on electron cloud
Atoms have what type of charge? electrically neutral b/c protons & electrons cancel each other out
Atomic # made up of ? protons and electrons
each atom has its own atomic number
Mass # is made up of protons and Neutrons
Mass # must be a _________ __________ whole number
In an isotope symbol ___________ ___________ is on top & _________ _____________ is on bottom Mass Number; Atomic Number
Isotope atoms of the same element that have a different # of Neutrons
Atomic Mass / Weight the "average atom" of each element the weighted average mass of all naturally occurring isotopes
Atomic Mass/AMU has how many sigfigs 4 sigfigs
Electrons are confined to ________ ( _________ _____ / ______) energy; energy shells; levels
Electrons can shift to __________ _________ & emit _________ ( _______________) excited states; emit light; energy
ground state when electrons have the lowest energy
electrons of similar energy are grouped into? Shells (labeled 'n')
Shell 1 holds 2 electrons
Shell 2 holds 8 electrons
Shell 3 holds 18 electrons
Shell 4 holds 32 electrons
Shell 1 has how many subshells 1 subshell 1s
Shell 2 has how many subshells 2 subshells 2s, 2p
Shell 3 has how many subshells 3 subshells 3s, 3p, 3d
Shell 4 has how many subshells 4 subshells 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f
each subshell has ___________ orbitals
orbitals particular shaped space that holds 1 to 2 electrons
S subshell has _________ & holds ___________ 1 orbital; 2 electrons
P subshell has _________ & holds ___________ 3 orbitals; 6 electrons
D subshell has __________& holds ___________ 5 orbitals; 10 electrons
F subshell has __________ & holds _________ 7 orbitals; 14 electrons
Pacli exclusion principles 2 electrons in an orbital have opposite spins
Electron configuration & arrangement describes/defines the organization of electrons
Electron Configuration address look at notes
Electron Arrangement draw a picture showing protons, neutrons, and electrons in shells, subshells, orbitals look at notes
Electron Configuration superscripts represents ________ ___ _________ in each element number of electrons
Noble Gas Notation shorthand configuration uses the electron configuration of the noble gas
what does Noble Gas Notation look like? Na = (Ne) 3e1 square brackets uses noble gas before it
Valenic Electrons outermost occupied shell highest energy
Group # = ________________________ # of valence electrons
Electron Dot Symbol used to represent valance electrons don't pair until you have too
Electron Dot Symbol is also know as? Lewis Dot Structure
Atomic Size measured by atomic radius (distance from nucleus to outer edge of valence shell)
Atomic Size __________ down a group & going across a row increases (more layers of electrons) decreases (as the # of protons in nucleus increases)
Ionization Energy the energy required to remover an electron from an atom
Ionization Energy _________ going down a group & ___________ from left to right across a period as the protons inreases decreases (electrons further from nucleus) increases
atom the basic building block of matter composed of a nucleus and an electron cloud
Periodic Table groups of elements have similar properties and these elements could be arranged in a schematic way
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are found in 4 types of biological moecules proteins carbohydrates lipids nucleic acids
Major Minerals Macronutrients one of the seven elements present in the body in small amounts Potassium Magnesium Calcium
Trace Elements Micronutrients an element required in the daily diet in small quanties less than 15 mg
chemical formula uses element symbols to show the identity of the elements forming a compound and subscripts to show the ratio of atoms contained in the compound ex. H2O
all matter is composed of the same basic building blocks called? atoms
Nucleus dense core containing protons and neutrons
most of the mass of an atom resides in the> nucleus
Electron cloud composed of electrons that move rapidly in the almost empty space surrounding the nucleus
the electron cloud comprises most of the ______ of an atom volume
Atomic Mass Unit defines the mass of individual atoms relative to a standard mass
Atomic # is the # of protons in the nucleus in periodic table it is the # above element
Mass # Protons + Neutrons in periodic table it is the # below element
Atomic Weight atomic mass weighted average of the mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of a particular element reported in the atomic mass units (AMU)
Lanthanides a group of 14 elements in the periodic table that begin with Z and immediately following the element La
Actindies a group of elements that begin with Z + 90 following element Ac
elements that comprise a particular group have _________________________. similar chemical properties
Alkali metals characteristics soft shiny low melting points good conductors of heat and electricity react readily with water to from basic solutions
Noble Gases are stable rarely combine with other elements to form compounds
In their element form, halogens contain ____________. 2 atoms joined together
Diamond hard because it contains a dense 3-d network of carbon atom sin a six-membered rings
Graphite a slippery black substance used as a lubricant used in pencils the softest of carbons
the chemical properties of an element are determined by the # of ________ in the atom electrons
Electrons do not move _______ in space. confined to _______ _______. giving it a ________ ________ freely specific region particular engery
Electrons occupy discrete _______ _________. energy levels
The energy of electrons is quantized
quantized means the energy is restricted to specific values
the farther a shell is from the nucleus, the ______ its volume becomes, & the ______ electrons it can hold larger more
electrons closer to the nucleus are held _____ _______ and are _________ in energy more tightly lower
Electrons farther from the nucleus are held ______ _____ and are ________ in energy less tightly higher
orbital a region of space where the probability of finding an electron is high
each orbital holds how many electrons 2
why would a s orbital have lower energy than another orbital in the same shelf because the electrons are kept closer to the nucleus
why would a p orbital have more energy than that of a s orbital in the same shelf because the electrons are further from the nucleus
ground state the lowest energy arrangement of electrons
electron configuration how the electrons are arranged in an atom's orbital
orbital diagrams
unpaired electron a single electron shown with a single arrow pointing up
paired spins 2 electrons in an orbital spins are opposite shown as up and down arrows
atomic # tells us_____ how many electrons must be place in orbitals
valence shell the outermost shell
valence electrons electrons in the outermost shell
Elements in the same group have the _______ _____ of valence electrons and _____ _______ same # of valence electrons similar electronic configurations
the group number equals the ______ ____ ____ _____ for main group elements number of valence electrons ex. alkali metals in group 1A have 1 valence electron
periodic trends they change in a regular way across a row or down a column
Atomic Size the size of an atom is measured by its atomic radius
atomic radius the distance from the nucleus to the outer edge of the valence shell
The size of atoms ______ down a column of the periodic table, as the ________ _____ are father from the nucleus increases valence electrons
the size of atoms _____ across a row of the periodic table as the number of protons __________. decreases increases
An _______ # of protons pulls the electrons _______ to the nucleus, so the atom gets ___________ increasing closer smaller
ionization energy is the energy needed to remove an electron from a neutral atom
cation positively charged has fewer electrons than the neutral atom
Ionization energies ______ ______ a column of the periodic table as the ________ _________ get farther from the postively charged nucleus. decreases down valence electrons farther
Ionization energies generally __________ across of the table as the number of protons in the nucleus _________ increases increases
Ionization Energy increases as you...... go diagonally up (from left to right across periodic table) more energy is required to remove electron because of fewer shells; nucleus acts a gravity, has stronger hold on electrons start from Fr go diagonally up to F
this group is not included in ionization energy noble gases
Atomic Size increases as you go diagonally down (from right to left across the period table) everything is getting pulled way from nucleus due to increase of valence shells
Created by: eaholmes