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Chem CH 1

Chemistry study of the composition of substances (matter) & the changes they undergo
Scientific Method general procedures used in science to problem solve
4 steps of the scientific method - observation: questions - hypothesis: a tentative assumption - experiment: test - theory: alter, reject, accepting/summarizes, hypothesis
Scientific Notation used to represent vary small or large numbers
Positive Exponents - large #'s move decimal to left
Negative Exponents - small #'s move decimal to right
Inexact Numbers - are obtained through measurements or observation - contains some uncertainty
Exact Numbers are obtained by counting items or from established equivalents
Accuracy close to accepted (true) value
Precision how close values are to each reproducibility
Significant Figures inexact (measured) #'s that have a final digit that is estimated
In sig figs how do you measure measure one past the last calibrated mark place values
uncertainty depends on what when measured depends on the device used to measure
sig figs do not apply to to exact #'s
english to english or metric to metric are considered exact numbers
Specific Gravity compares the density of a substance to a density of water at 4 degrees celsius
Density of water equals 1.00 g/ml
what is specific gravity's unit has no units
what measures specific gravity hydrometer
Matter - anything that exists & takes up space - natural, synthetic - classified by components;
Naturally Occurring it is isolated from natural resources
Synthetic They are produced by chemists in a laboratory
Pure Substances - fixed/definite composition, elements, & compounds - composed of a single component - has a constant composition regardless of the sample size and origin
pure substance cannot be broken down to other pure substances by any physical change
Element - consists of 1 type of atom - can't be broken down by ordinary chemical means pure substance Ex. Ag = gold
Compounds consists of 2+ elements; chemically combined in a definite ratios pure substance Ex. CO = Carbon Monoxide
Mixture - 2+ substances physically mixed not chemically combined, composition varies; can be separated by psychical means - mixtures can be liquid, solid, gas Ex. salt & pepper shaker from Subway
States of Matter - solid - liquid - gas
Solid has - definite volume; definite shape - particles lie close together - particles arranged in a regular 3-dimensional array
Liquid has - definite volume; on definite shape - particles are close together, but move randomly around, sliding past one another
Gas has - no definite volume or shape - particles move randomly & are separated by a distance much larger than their size
Properties of Matter - Physical - Chemical
Physical Properties - color, size, shape, melting point - observed w/o changing its composition
Chemical Properties - flammability, reactivity - observed & changed substance - substance can be converted to another substance
Changes of Matter - physical -chemical
physical changes to matter.... - melting, tearing - change in state - alters a substance w/o changing its composition
chemical changes to matter..... - chemical reaction - converts one material to another - burning paper; rusting
disadvantage of the English System.... units are not systematically related to each other & require memorization
SI units - based on the metric system, - Systeme International - International system of Units was formally adopted as the uniform system of units for science, 1960
Mass - a measure of the amount of matter in an object - stays the same
Weight - the force that matter feels due to gravity - changes due to location
2 units for volume - cubic cm (object) - mL (liquid)
1ml = 1 cubic cm = 1 cc
Conversion Factor term that converts a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit
goal of a conversion factor.... setting up the problem to make sure all unwanted units cancel
in conversion factor, always arrange the factors so... that the denominator in one term cancels the numerator in the preceding term
Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold an object is
3 scales used in temperature - Fahrenheit - Celsius - Kelvin
Fahrenheit to Celsius equation F = (1.8 x C) + 32
Celsius to Fahrenheit equation C = (F - 32) / 1.8
Celsius to Kelvin C = K - 273
Kelvin to Celsius K = C + 273
Density a physical property that relates the mass of a substance to its volume g/mL
density equation D = M / V
density of a substance depends on temperature
solid stat is __________ than the liquid state more dense
as the temperature __________, the density__________ increases; decreases
The ___________ of a substance determines whether it floats or sinks in a liquid. density
A ________ dense substance floats on a ______ dense liquid. less; more
equation for Specific Gravity specfiic gravity = density of a substance (g/mL)/ density of H20 (g/mL)
Units for Specific Gravity has no units
why does specific gravity have no units all of the units get cancelled out while solving equation
what is the density of water at 4 degrees Celsius 1.00 g/ml
the specific gravity of a substances equals___________ its density, but with no units
Created by: eaholmes



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