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# 5th Grade EDM Unit 2

### Estimation and Computation

Term | Definition |
---|---|

ballpark estimate | a rough estimate |

algorithm | a set of step-by-step instructions for doing something, such as carrying out a computation or solving a problem |

certain | absolutely will happen |

column addition | an addition algorithm in which the addends' digits are first added in each place-value column separately, and then 10-for-1 trades are made until each column has only one digit |

difference | the result of subtracting one number from another; the answer in a subtraction problem |

digit | any one of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 |

estimate | an answer close to, or approximating, an exact answer |

expanded notation | a way of writing a number as the sum of the values of each digit |

false number sentence | a number sentence that is not true |

impossible | will never happen |

magnitude estimate | a rough estimate of whether a number is in the tens, hundreds, thousands, or other powers of 10 |

maximum | the largest number in a set of data |

minimum | the smallest number in a set of data |

median | the middle value in a set of data when the data are listed in order from smallest to largest or vice versa. If there is an even number of data points, the median is the mean of the two middle values |

mean | for a set of numbers, their sum divided by the number of numbers; average |

mode | the value or values that occur most often in a set of data |

partial sums algorithm | an addition strategy in which separate sums are computed for each place value of the numbers and then added to get a final sum |

place value | a system that give a digit a value according to its position, or place, in a number |

range | the difference between the maximum and the minimum in a set of data |

trade-first algorithm | a subtraction strategy in which all necessary trades between places in the numbers are done before any subtractions are carried out |

true number sentence | a number sentence stating a correct fact |

value | what something is worth |

variable | a letter or other symbol that represents a number |

minuend | in subtraction, the number from which another number is subtracted |

subtrahend | the number being taken away in a subtraction problem |

operation symbol | a symbol used in expressions and number sentences to stand for a particular mathematical operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and powering) |

partial differences method | a subtraction strategy in which separate differences are computed for each place value of the numbers and then added to get a final difference |

partial products method | a multiplication strategy in which partial products are computed by multiplying the value of each digit in one factor by the value of each digit in the other factor. The final product is the sum of the partial products. |

relation symbol | a symbol used to express a relationship between two quantities (equal to, not equal to, less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to, approximately equal to, congruent to) |

solution | answer to a problem or number sentence |

number sentence | two expressions with a relation symbol |

open number sentence | a number sentence with one or more variables |

probability meter | a tool used to show probabilities as fractions, decimals, and percents |