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5th Grade EDM Unit 2

Estimation and Computation

TermDefinition
ballpark estimate a rough estimate
algorithm a set of step-by-step instructions for doing something, such as carrying out a computation or solving a problem
certain absolutely will happen
column addition an addition algorithm in which the addends' digits are first added in each place-value column separately, and then 10-for-1 trades are made until each column has only one digit
difference the result of subtracting one number from another; the answer in a subtraction problem
digit any one of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9
estimate an answer close to, or approximating, an exact answer
expanded notation a way of writing a number as the sum of the values of each digit
false number sentence a number sentence that is not true
impossible will never happen
magnitude estimate a rough estimate of whether a number is in the tens, hundreds, thousands, or other powers of 10
maximum the largest number in a set of data
minimum the smallest number in a set of data
median the middle value in a set of data when the data are listed in order from smallest to largest or vice versa. If there is an even number of data points, the median is the mean of the two middle values
mean for a set of numbers, their sum divided by the number of numbers; average
mode the value or values that occur most often in a set of data
partial sums algorithm an addition strategy in which separate sums are computed for each place value of the numbers and then added to get a final sum
place value a system that give a digit a value according to its position, or place, in a number
range the difference between the maximum and the minimum in a set of data
trade-first algorithm a subtraction strategy in which all necessary trades between places in the numbers are done before any subtractions are carried out
true number sentence a number sentence stating a correct fact
value what something is worth
variable a letter or other symbol that represents a number
minuend in subtraction, the number from which another number is subtracted
subtrahend the number being taken away in a subtraction problem
operation symbol a symbol used in expressions and number sentences to stand for a particular mathematical operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and powering)
partial differences method a subtraction strategy in which separate differences are computed for each place value of the numbers and then added to get a final difference
partial products method a multiplication strategy in which partial products are computed by multiplying the value of each digit in one factor by the value of each digit in the other factor. The final product is the sum of the partial products.
relation symbol a symbol used to express a relationship between two quantities (equal to, not equal to, less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to, approximately equal to, congruent to)
solution answer to a problem or number sentence
number sentence two expressions with a relation symbol
open number sentence a number sentence with one or more variables
probability meter a tool used to show probabilities as fractions, decimals, and percents
Created by: SarahMueller