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Advanced Higher

Unit 2 - Sex Determination

Name two types of factors that can affect gender Genetics and environmental
Name the four environmental factors that affect the sex ratio Size of organism, incubation temperature, parasitic infections, competition
Name two types of organisms that use the XY system of gender Live-bearing mammals and Drosophilia
State the gender of males and females using the XY system and who is homogametic Females – homogametic Males – heterogametic
Give an example of an organism who’s system is the opposite to mammals. Chickens
State what gender is more likely to inherit a sex linked disease. Males
State the genotype of a normal female, carrier female and affected male (using the letter B or b) affected by a sex linked condition Normal female XBXB Carrier female XBXb Affected male XbY
Explain why males are more likely to be affected by sex linked conditions Males only have one X chromosome, whereas females have two X chromosomes, males cannot mask recessive alleles.
State the name of the genes that determine maleness on the Y chromosome SRY gene
Explain how these genes determine maleness. The SRY gene produces the hormone testosterone.
Explain the concept of X inactivation in female tortoise shell cats. One of the homologous chromosomes randomly inactivates. Inactivation of 50% black and 50% orange alleles causes a patchwork tortoise shell cat.
Explain why X inactivation is necessary. Prevents a double dose of gene produced, which can be toxic to cells.
State the term for two different sex chromosomes. Heterogametic
State the term for two of the same sex chromosomes. Homogametic.
Created by: StNiniansHS