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# Chem 142Q-chapter 12

molarity (M) moles of solute/liters of soln
molality (m) moles of solute/kg of solvent
mole fraction moles of solute/total moles of soln
parts by mass (/million; /billion) ppm: 10^6 ppb: 10^9
what will cause solubility to increase (gas)? DECREASE temp, INCREASE pressure (think of soda)
Henry's Law (only applies to pressure on gas solubility) Concentration (gas)((mol/L)=M) = kH(Henry's constant)(mol/L*atm) * Pressure (gas; if multiple gases present, partial pressure of gas 'x' )(in atm) [c=kP]
Raoult's Law Pressure (solvent/soln) = mole fraction (solute or solvent/soln) * total partial pressure (P^o)
Ex: Calculate VP of a solution at 70oC prepared by dissolving 5.00 grams of glucose (c6h12o6) in 100.g of water (Pressure of h20= 233.7 torr at 70oC) 5.00 g C6h12o6 * (1mol/ 180.12 g) = .0278 mol c6h12o6 100g h20 * (1mol/18.01g) = 5.55 mol [5.55 mol (h2o)/ 5.778 mol (soln)] * 233.7 torr (pressure of H20) = 233. Torr (ANS)
saturated solution contains max amt of solute that will dissolve in a solvent at a given temp
unsaturated soln contains less solute than its capacity to dissolve
supersaturated soln contains more solute than is present in a saturated soln
crystallization process in which dissolved solute comes out of solution and forms crystals
if solute-solvent attraction > solvent-solvent or solute-solute attraction, the reaction is ________ exothermic b/c forming bonds
if solute-solvent attraction < solvent-solvent or solute-solute attraction, the reaction is ________ endothermic b/c breaking bonds
how does an increase in solubility affect disorder? increase solubility, increase disorder
Miscible when two liquids are completely soluble in each other in all proportions
fractional crystallization separation of a mixture of substances into pure components on the basis of their differing solubilities
boiling pt elevation PB of soln - PB of pure solvent Tb1 - Tb2 =kb*molality -solute must be nonvolatile
freezing point depression Tf1-Tf2 = tf*molality -E must be removed from system
osmotic pressure the pressure exerted to stop osmosis affected by temperature pi= MRT
van't hoff factor (i) # of particles in soln after diss./# of formula units in original soln
electrolyte can dissociate into charged particles
Created by: mecjohson