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1. The transmission of characteristic x-rays through the same element filter as the target results in a nearly monoenergetic output of the x-ray tube around: 17 to 22 keV
2. A sample of radioactive material is reported to contain 2000 picocuries of activity. Express this value as disintegrations per minute. 4440 dpm
3. In the siting of nuclear reactors, the exclusion radius refers to: the distance downwind from the reactor that a person may receive either a dose of 25 rem to the whole body or 300 rem to the thyroid if he stands there for two hours after the onset of the postulated accident
4. Germanium-Lithium semiconductor detectors are limited by count rate due to: the width of the electrical pulses produced
5. Tissue dose from thermal neutrons is principally a result of: (n,gamma) reactions with hydrogen and (n,p) reactions with nitrogen
6. Filters are used in film badges in order to: 1) accelerate beta particles 2) correct for tissue equivalence 3) discriminate between different types of radiation 4) correct for energy dependence of film 2,3,4
7. Of the following cell types, which is LEAST radiosensitive? nerve cells
8. Plutonium: Is very toxic
9. The dominant external radiation hazard in Fuel cycle facilities requiring work with unshielded forms of uranium is: beta
10. In emergency planning, a "protective action guide" is defined as: the projected dose which warrants protective action to be taken
11. The units used to express µ/ρ (mu over rho) are: cm2/g
12. What would be a good approximation of the quality factor (QF) of the neutrino? 0
13. The quality factor refers to all the following except: for all radiation sources, the constant factor which relates absorbed dose to dose equivalent
14. The Department of Transportation (DOT) label Yellow III allows what surface radiation dose rate, when the package is shipped non-exclusive use? Between 500 µSv per hr and 2000 µSv per hr
15. According to 10CFR19, all individuals who are employed by a company must receive instruction in the health protection problems associated with excessive exposure to radiation if they are likely to receive: 5 mSv
16. What is one of the special units used to express activity of 16. radioactive materials? Curie
17. Which particle is considered to be radioactive by itself? Neutron
18. Which of the following radionuclides is NOT a naturally occurring radionuclide? radiation workers have continuous monitoring of their exposure and the work environment is continuously monitored
19. Which of the following is a Beta emitter? Uranium-238
20. A sample is measured using a proportional counter. 100 counts are observed in seven minutes. What is the counting rate and its associated standard deviation? 14.3 cpm +/- 1.4 cpm
21. The primary function of a radiation detecting instrument that operates in the proportional region is to measure: Alpha, beta, gamma
22. If the sample plus background is 1600 counts in one minute and the background is 900 counts in one minute, the net count is 700 counts per minute plus or minus ______ counts per minute (1 standard deviation). 50
23. The SI unit for dose equivalent in man is the: Rem
24. The non-stochastic ALIs listed in Appendix B to part 20 are designated: by the letters "NS" after the value
25. The non-stochastic ALIs listed in Appendix B to part 20 are designated: with the name of the organ limited by the dose
26. An adequate Radiation Safety Program is the ultimate responsibility of: the owner of the licensed facility
27. Why are the low atomic number materials such as aluminum and organic plastics used to shield against Beta? Eliminate Bremmsstrahlung
28. Which of the following statements is NOT correct with regard to the administration of KI to off-site radiological survey team members KI must be given before the intake starts to have a beneficial effect
29. Nominal counting efficiencies of a 2 Pi proportional counter for alpha and beta sources, respectively, would be: 50% and 65%
30. In the G-M region of a gas filled type detector, the output: pulse height is independent of the type and energy of the radiation entering the detector
31. Which of the following statements about fume hoods is INCORRECT? the gas, water, and electrical appliances should be operated from inside the fume hood
32. Radioactive atoms that have a neutron to proton ratio that is great will decay by: beta minus decay
33. Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding neutron bubble detectors? They are affected by temperature
34. The "working level" (WL) used in the USA and Canada as a unit of radon decay is: 1 liter air with emission of 1.3 E5 MeV alpha
35. Which of the following radionuclides is a bone seeker? Ca-45
36. Half-value thickness for 1 MeV photons in lead is approximately 1 cm. A 100 mCi Zn-65 1.12 MeV/photon point source produces a dose rate of 30 mR/hr at 1 meter. What is the exposure rate at 10 cm from this source with the addition of a 5 cm lead shield 0.02 mR/hr
37. The average energy required to produce an ion pair in air by x or gamma radiation is: 33.7 eV
38. The approximate diameter of an atomic nucleus is: 1 E-12 cm
39. Carbon dating is possible because: the specific activity of Carbon-14 in living organisms is relatively constant through time, but decays after the death of the organism
40. According to NUREG-0713, which of the following occupations has the highest average annual individual dose? Industrial Radiography
41. The underlying principle for radioresponse of a mammalian tissue is called the Law of _________. Bergonie and Tribondeau
42. Which of the below quality factors (QF) apply to diagnostic x-rays? 1
43. Radiobiological evidence suggests that, when compared to more uniform irradiation by the same quantity of radioactive material, highly localized beta irradiation of skin, such as from a particle on the skin: is less likely to cause skin cancer
44. Proportional counters have gas amplification factors that are: Greater than 1
45. A meter reads 40,000 net cpm and the efficiency of the detector is 40%. How many dpm does this represent? 100,000 dpm
46. The maximum allowable radiation level at contact of a package shipped in other than an exclusive use vehicle 200 mR/hr
47. A semi-conductor is distinguished from an insulator or conductor by its: band gap
48. What is a "neutrino"? Massless particle
49. If a radionuclide undergoes eight half-lives, what percentage of the original activity remains? 0.4%
50. In a gas filled detector a low voltage potential will increase the time required to collect ions produced by radiation permitting a large number to be neutralized. This process is called: recombination
51. You are analyzing a sample containing Na-24 which emits two gamma photons at 2.76 MeV and 1.37 MeV with 100% abundance. On the gamma spectrometer spectrum two additional peaks are seen at 2.25 MeV and 1.74 MeV. These two additional peaks are due to: escape of one or more air production gammas from the detector
52. The class “D” in Appendix B to part 20 applies to a range of clearance half lives: < 10 days in the pulmonary region of the lung
53. Which of the following is in the order of MOST effective to LEAST effective shielding materials for gamma radiation sources? lead, iron, concrete, water
54. For removing radioactive contamination from the skin, your best choice would be: a mild soap
55. Which of the following is one function of the ALARA program? train workers in methods to reduce exposure
56. Consider a proportional detector operated at a constant voltage. Based only on the statistical fluctuations, which of the following fill gases would you expect to have the lowest percent resolution? Xe with a W value of 21.9 eV/ion pair
57. Radioactive atoms that have a neutron to proton ratio that is great will decay by: alpha decay
58. The minimum detectable activity for a counting system is: an indication of the range of energy response
59. The minimum mass of material which sustains a nuclear chain reaction for a given set of conditions is called: critical mass
60. A shield has to be constructed in front of a hot spot to reduce the exposure rate by 80%. The half value layer for the shielding is one-quarter inch. What is the minimum number of shielding thicknesses required? 3
61. What is the most common ionizing radiation hazard associated with antistatic devices? Alpha
62. Which of the following naturally occurring radionuclides contribute the most to the annual average background dose equivalent to a member of the U.S. due to ingestion? K-40
63. Cs-134, Cs-137 and Cs-135 are: isotopes
64. Assuming a normal cancer fatality rate of 20%, what would be the total probability of developing a fatal cancer for a group of occupationally exposed workers with a 3 in 1,000 probability of contracting a radiation induced fatal cancer. 203, in 1,000
65. Which of the following Regulatory Guides might be of use to a female employee considering declaring pregnancy? 8.13
66. A tissue-equivalent chamber must: have walls of gthe same mean density as tissue
67. You work at a nuclear power plant, it is the evening shift and ou are approached by an NRC inspector who wants to know the density thickness of paper protective clothing he observed on a worker. He would like the information by the end of the shift. Cut out a square piece of material, send it to the chemistry lab to be weighed and divide the weight by the area of the material.
68. To remain in compliance with 10CFR61, you need to resample your waste streams in all of the situations below EXCEPT: semi-annually for confirmation
69. When leak testing an industrial radiography source, the contamination sample should be obtained: on the inside of the source tube
70. Quality factor is a function of the collision stopping power of the radiation in water
71. The SI unit for radiation absorbed dose is the: Gray
72. A light pipe is used in a scintillation counter to: prevent the light from being trapped in the phosphor
73. You have received a package containing radioactive material. The highest smearable contamination on the external surface of the package is 3,000 dpm/100 cm2. You should notify: the final carrier and the NRC Regional office
74. The following are considered as risks of chronic low-level radiation exposure: 1) Sterility 2) Leukemia 3) Cataracts 4) Skin erythema 2
75. A chemical which has shown some success as an internal chelating agent for plutonium is: diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)
76. A counting rate of 40 cpm is measured in 2 minutes. What is the standard deviation of this counting rate? +/- 4.5 cpm
77. The average energy expended to produce an ion pair is called: W value
78. The target organ for most transportable long-lived alpha emitters is: the bone surfaces
79. Which of the following detectors operates in a voltage region where gas multiplication effects are observed? proportional counter
80. A proper average quality factor for estimating the dose equivalent in a radiation field consisting of an unknown spectrum of fast neutrons is: 10
81. What is the ionization region? the region of voltage over which the saturation current is produced
82. Technecium-99m is Artificially produced and does not occur naturally
83. The function of an “annular kinetic impactor head” is to trap: Airborne particles
84. Which of the following bioassay methods may be found in an Uranium facility? In-Vivo monitoring using sodium iodide detectors In-Vivo monitoring using hyperpure germanium detectors In-Vivo monitoring using phoswich detectors In-Vitro monitoring using urinalysis and fecal analysis
85. Which of the following radionuclides in soil is major contributor to genetically significant radiation exposure? Potassium-40
86. How does the NRC regulate x-ray machines? NRC does not regulate x-ray machines
87. Measurement uncertainty in a radiation measuring device is a function of: both precision and accuracy in the measurement
88. The net counts observed from successively counting a sample are plotted on semilog paper, and the plot forms a curved line. It is probable that: the sample contained more than one radionuclide
89. The build-up factor in radiation shielding is caused by: Broad beam conditions
90. What scintillator material has a high efficiency for alpha measurement and is not especially affected by temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure? ZnS
91. In what way can we establish whether or not an individual could exceed some percent of the DAC? obtain an air sample
92. An individual living in Denver, Colorado (elevation 5280 ft above sea level) could expect to receive an average annual dose equivalent due to cosmic radiation of approximately: 50 mrem
93. You are assigned to count a number of environmental samples. To meet the required LLDs you need to adjust a number of the counting parameters. To increase the LLD value what must you do to: sample size, count time and detector background? increase sample size, increase count time, reduce background
94. The exposure rate of the turbine floor of a boiling water reactor plant could be expected to be decreased to less than 1% at least _______________ after shutdown? five minutes
95. The primary purpose of a routine tritium urinalysis bioassay is to: assess the effectiveness of administrative and physical controls of the radiation protection program for tritium
96. When transporting a Highway Route Controlled Quantity of radioactive material outside of the licensee’s state, notification must be made to: affected state governors or their designated deputies and the regional DOT offices
97. Decontamination of a hot cell is most easily accomplished if the hot cell is: constructed of stainless steel
98. The following dosimetry should be worn in mixed neutron/beta/gamma field: albedo TLD, self-reading quartz fiber dosimeter and beta-gamma responsive TLD
99. The minimum recommended face velocity for a fume hood is: 125 linear feet per minute
100. After four half-lives, the original activity of a radionuclide will be reduced by a factor of: 16
Created by: Kpminton