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Chem Test Ch 8

precipitation the formation of a solid in a chemical reaction
precipitate the solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
precipitation reaction a reaction in which a solid forms and separates from the solution
double replacement reaction a reaction in which the ions that originally combined complete a double exchange to form two new compounds
strong electrolyte a substance that, when dissolved in water, produces separated (dissociated) ions and conducts electricity
soluble solid a solid that readily dissolves in water
insoluble solid/slightly soluble solid considered to mean the same thing - a solid where so little dissolves that it is undetectable to the naked eye
molecular equation a chemical equation showing the complete (undissociated) forms of all reactants and products
complete ionic equation a chemical equation for a reaction in solution representing all strong electrolytes as ions
net ionic equation a chemical equation for a reaction in solution showing only those components that are directly involved in the reaction
spectator ion an ion present in solution that does not participate in the reaction
Arrhenius acid a substance that produces H+ ions (protons) when it is dissolved in water
strong acid strong electrolyte that produces H+ ions
Arrhenius base a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
Strong base strong electrolyte that produces OH- ions
acid base reaction (neutralization) when a strong acid and strong base mix, the fundamental chemical change that always occurs is that H+ ions react with OH- ions to form water
oxidation-reduction reaction a reaction that involves a transfer of elections
single replacement reaction a reaction in which a single type of anion is exchanged
combustion reaction a chemical reaction involving oxygen as one of the reactants that produces heat and light
synthesis (combination) reaction a chemical reaction in which two or more substances react to form a single substance
decomposition reaction a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds, or to the component elements
catalyst a substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up
seven diatomic molecules H2, N2, O2, Cl2, F2, I2, Br2 -- Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer
four driving forces of a chemical reaction 1) formation of a solid 2) formation of water 3) formation of a gas 4) transfer of electrons
precipitation reaction (solving) compound(aq) + compound(aq) = compound(s) + compound(aq)
double replacement (solving) can be any states
acid base (solving) HX + MOH → H2O(l) + MX (X = nonmetal, M = metal) - type of double replacement reaction
oxidation reduction (solving) always has something by itself (can be on either side of the equation)
single replacement (solving) switch the two elements that have the similar sign on their charges
combustion (solving) CxHy(O)(g/l) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) always has the same products, just need to know how to balance
synthesis (solving) 2 elements become one compound
decomposition (solving) 1 compound becomes 2
steps to balance a combustion reaction 1) Balance C 2) Balance H 3) Check for an odd amount of O - if odd double everything but O2
Created by: meg.minor.15