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Biology Test Review

Mrs. Bowe

The Grants conducted their experiment to test which of the following processes? Natural selection
The data that the Grants collected proved that there is great variation of heritable traits among Galapagos finches.
Which of the following hypotheses did the Grants test? Differences in beak size and shape produce differences in fitness.
animals with similar structures evolved from a common ancestor comparative anatomy
similar types of proteins and other molecules are found in related organisms homologous molecules
the early developmental phases of related organisms look similar comparative embryology
recently discovered intermediate forms trace the evolution of modern forms from extinct ancestors fossils
the genetic code is universal among almost all organisms genetics
Structures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited from a common ancestor homologous structures
Body parts that share common function, but not structure analogous structures
Body parts in animals that are so reduced in size that they are just vestiges, or traces, of homologous structures in other species vestigial structures
Natural selection acts on acquired traits. false
Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival is considered an adaptation. true
Natural selection is the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment. false
Malthus’s ideas led Darwin to conclude that many more organisms are born than will survive and reproduce.
Which of the following is an idea attributed to Malthus? If the human population grew unchecked, there wouldn’t be enough living space and food for everyone.
Which observation caused Thomas Malthus to form his theory about population growth? Human birth rate was higher than the death rate.
How did Lamarck propose that species change over time? both use and disuse and inheritance of acquired characteristics
The Earth is millions of years old. James Hutton
The processes that changed the earth in the past are still changing earth in the present. Charles Lyell
Organisms can change to live more successfully in their environments. Jean Baptiste Lamarck
If human population continues to grow unchecked, we will run out of living space and food. Thomas Malthus
Some fossils of extinct organisms are similar to living species Species vary over time
Different types of tortoises and finches are found on the Galapagos Islands Species vary locally
Similar flightless birds can be found on 3 different continents Species vary globally
Which of these continents did Darwin not visit? Antarctica, Asia North America
Which continent did Darwin spend the most time exploring? South America
What is the half-life of an isotope? The amount of time is takes for one-half of a radioactive substance to decay.
What are the 5 different ways that fossils are formed? Fossils are formed in sedimentary rocks, frozen in ice, captured in amber, preserved in peat bogs, and preserved in tar pits.
Name at least four introduced species to the Galapagos Islands. Fire ants, goats, pigs, cats, rats, dogs, donkeys, cattle, horses
What is fitness? The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce.
What is the evidence for shared ancestors that supports the idea of common descent? Comparative embryology, Comparative anatomy, Comparative biochemistry Fossil records, Comparative Genetics
What are adaptations? heritable traits that enable organisms to survive and reproduce.
What are the three types of adaptations? Behavioral, morphological, and physiological.
What are behavioral adaptations? They usually have to do with mating rituals, or behaviors that improve survival
What are morphological adaptations? Structural variations within a species.
What are physiological adaptations? Chemical adaptations such as the ability to produce milk or venom, or the ability to change colors.
What is natural selection? Selection of organisms who survive because they have the best adaptations for their environment
What is industrial melanism? A type of human influences natural selection of the color of an organism. The Peppered Moths are a classical example.
What is evolution? The process in which organisms change over time.
What were Darwin’s 3 general findings about variations among species? Species vary globally Species vary locally Species vary over time
What is an example of species varying locally? The Galapagos tortoises whose shell shapes varied based on which island they were on.
What is an example of species varying over time? The extinct glyptodont and the modern armadillo.
What is Common Descent? Species alive today share common ancestry
What is comparative embryology? Similarities between unborn organisms
What are fossils? Preserved remains of once living things
What is genetics? Provides the mechanism or seeds of evolution
Who was James Hutton? The father of geology
What is the age of the earth? 4.5 billion years
What is behavioral? Birds build nests
What is morphological? Shark skin
What is paleoanthropology? The study of early humans
What does totipotent mean? Stem cells become any cell
What is the evidence for evolution provided by comparative embryology? Organisms' embryological development are similar longer the more closely related they are.
What are introduced species? Newcomers to an area that upset the ecology.
What was Darwin's idea about evolution? There are trait variations within a species. The variations that work best in a given environment will increase and the variations that are harmful to survival will decrease. These variations are heritable.
What is the main mechanism, the main driving force, the underlying cause promoting evolution? DNA mutations are the main underlying mechanism for evolution. Different combinations of genes through sexual reproduction also contributes.
What can a zygote do? It's the start and from there it can become anything
What was the title of Charles Darwin's first book? On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
What were the 3 main influences on Darwin as he was formulating his idea about "descent with modifications aboard the HMS Beagle? Geology, agriculture, and population growth.
Who was Darwin? father of evolution
Darwin went on a trip that lasted how many years? 5
Those with favorable variations survive, reproduce and pass on their variations “Survival of the Fittest” Natural Selection
all living things are descended from species that lived before them Common Descent
Individuals in a species have inherited variations Species produce more offspring than can survive They must then compete to survive and reproduce Natural Selection
Comparative Biochemistry Similarities in DNA, RNA, proteins, and enzymes
How do we know? Radioactive dating Rock layers Geologic features Fossils
Created by: fikott1