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GCSE5 crude oil

AQA GCSE chapter 09 crude oil

QuestionAnswer
what is a HydroCarbon? A COMPOUND of Hydrogen and Carbon ONLY, JOINED TOGETHER
What is the formula for Methane? CH4
Which Hydrocarbons are the most flammable? long chains or short chains? The ones with short chains of Carbon
What is Kerosene used for? Fuel for airplanes
How do we separate the different fractions of crude oil? Fractional Distillation
What is bitumen used for? To put on roads
Which fraction is the most viscous? Fuel Oil
The gases fraction contains chains of carbons. How long are the chains? 1 to 4 Carbon atoms
Ch4 is the formula for a member of which family? Alkane
C2H4 is the name of which compound? Ethane
What is the formula for Propane? C3H8
What is the formula for Propene? C3H6
Which type of Hydrocarbons will make Bromine Water change colour? Alkenes
What is the reaction where a long chain alkane breaks down into a shorter chain alkane and an Alkene? Cracking
Which compounds are saturated? Alkanes
Which compounds are unsaturated? Alkenes
How do you draw an AlkAne? Draw the correct number of carbons in a chain; join them with single links; draw links so that each Carbon has FOUR links (no more, no less)
How do you draw an AlkEne? Draw the correct number of carbons in a chain; join TWO carbons with a DOUBLE link; join the other carbons with single links; draw links so that each Carbon has FOUR links (no more, no less)
What is the mnemotechnic to remember that AlkEnes are Unsaturated? DEUX: Double Ene Unsaturated X (no more colour)
What is the chemical test to distinguish between AlkAne and AlkEne? Bromine water stays ORANGE with an alkane; but goes from Orange to COLOURLESS with an AlkEne
Explain how fractional distillation works crude oil is heated to 350°C; crude oil boil;the VAPOURS cool as it rises up the tower; VAPOURS condense at different levels according to the size of the molecules: the smaller molecules have LOWER boiling point and condense at TOP of tower
Describe the cracking experiment VAPOURS of an AlkAne are passed over a HOT CATALYST
Write the equation for Decane (C10H22) being cracked into Ethene (C2H4) and a smaller Alkane C10H22 --> C2H4 + C8H18; the number of carbon must be the same on both sides of the arrow
Decane (C10H22) can be cracked into 2 EthEne molecules and an AlkAne. What is the formula of the AlkAne? Write the equation C10H22 --> C2H4 + C2H4 + C6H14; the number of carbon must be the same on both sides of the arrow; The alkane is C6H14
Explain why we need to crack long chain alkAnes To get smaller molecules that are more USEFUL (more flammable) and more in DEMAND
What is crude oil? mixture of hydrocarbons
What is a hydrocarbon? a compound of hydrogen and carbon ONLY
How is crude oil formed? 1) millions of year ago; 2) plankton; 3)covered by sand 4)no oxygen 5)heat and pressure
What is fractional distillation used for? separating crude oil into fractions
Describe the procedure (how it works) heat; to boil most of the crude oil; smaller alkanes will condense at lower temperature, higher tower
What are the names and structures of the first four alkanes?
What are the properties of fraction found at the top of the tower? at the top, small molecules, easy to ffvc
What is cracking used for? breaking down long alkanes into smaller alkanes and an alkene; smaller alkanes are more in demand and more useful (more flammable)
Describe the procedure (how it works) 1) vapours 2)over a hot 3)catalyst
What kind of chemical reaction is cracking? thermal decomposition
How do we know that smaller Alkanes have been produced? more flammable
How do we know that a different kind of chemical (AlkEnes) have been produced? (what is the chemical test?) 1)bromine goes from 2) orange to 3)colourless
What are the two methods to crack long chain alkanes?
What is the equation for the cracking of Octane C8H18 into Ethene and one other molecule? C8H18 C2H4+C6H14; 1) LEARN your formulae: EthEne is C2H4; 2) work out the formula of the “other” product by balancing the number of carbons and hydrogen
What is the equation for the cracking of Octane C8H18 into Butane and one other molecule? C8H18 C4H10+C4H8; 1) LEARN your formulae: EthEne is C2H4; 2) work out the formula of the “other” product by balancing the number of carbons and hydrogen
What is the difference between complete and incomplete combustion? incomplete=not enough oxygen
What is the equation for the complete combustion of propane? C3H8+ 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O; WORD then FORMULAE then BALANCE!
What is the equation for the incomplete combustion of ethane? 2 C2H6+ 5 O2 4CO + 6H2O
Why is incomplete combustion dangerous? carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin; so the haemoglobin can not carry oxygen to the muscles anymore
Created by: ursulinechem2