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DNA biology vocab

TermDefinition
anticodon in tRNA, a triplet of nitrogenous bases that is complementary to a specific codone in mRNA
chromosome threadlike structure of nucleic acids that carries genetic information in forms of genes
codon in RNA, a three base "word" that codes for one amino acid
crossing-over two homologous pair exchange equal segments with eachother
diploid having two homologous sets of chromosomes
DNA molecule responsible for inheritance; nucleic acid that contains the sugar dexyribose
DNA helicase used to separate DNA
DNA polymerase enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotide to produce a DNA molecule
DNA replication process of copying a DNA molecule
double helix two strands of nucleotide wound about each other; structure of DNA
fertilization process when sperm and egg combine
gamete egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair
haploid having a single set of chromosomes
homologous chromosome one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
karyotype display of a person's 46 chromosomes
meiosis type of cell division that produces four cells; each with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell
mRNA RNA, molecule transcribed from a DNA template
mutagen physical or chemical agent that causes mutations
mutation any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
nitrogen base single or double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms with attached functional groups, found in nucleic acids
nucleotide building block of nucleic acid polymers
protein synthesis process when biological cells generate new proteins
RNA nucleic acid containing the sugar ribose
sex chromosome one of two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human chromosomes which determine an individual's gender
tetrad group of four chromatids formed during prophase 1 of meiosis by the two sister chromatids of each of the two homologous chromosomes
trait genetically determined characteristic
transcription process by which DNA template is used to produce a single stranded RNA molecule
translation process by which a sequence of nucleic acids in RNA direct the production of a chain of specific amino acids
tRNA RNA that translates the three-letter codons of mRNA to amino acids
Created by: Mc3448