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Ch. 18

Vocab: Basic House Construction

TermDefinition
2 x 4 A piece of lumber theoretically 2" thick by 4" wide. It's actually slightly smaller.
Batter Boards Temporary wood members on posts that form an L shape outside the corners of the footing, which line up the placement of the foundation walls.
Building Codes Public controls regulating construction that establish minimum construction standards.
Cape Cod Style 1 & 1/2 story home w/ high-pitched roof (steep sloped gable) w/ dormers (or vertical window, for 2nd story rooms, built thru sloping roof having its own gable & making its own roofline), windows w/ shutters, & a square chimney. Started in New England.
Certificate of Occupancy (C.O.) A document issued by a local government agency after a satisfactory inspection of a structure, authorizing the occupancy of the structure.
Colonial Style Type of residential construction (usually 2 stories) that incorporates architectural features found in early American homes.
Contemporary Style A type of residential construction that incorporates modern designs and architectural features. Can be in any configuration and have 1, 1.5, or 2 stories.
Fascia The wood covering attached to the end of the roof rafters at the outer end. Material facing the outer edge of the soffit (soffit=area under ease, or overhang). Tip/end of overhang, with the soffit on the underside of the overhang. 1/3 parts of the eave.
Flashing Strips of metal or other waterproof material placed between the foundation and the 1st wooden member of the house or used to waterproof joints in other areas of construction.
Footing Concrete base below the frost line that supports the foundation of the structure. This avoids shifting that can happen when the ground freezes. To construct this the building lines are laid out w/ batter boards. Most important foundation building block.
Foundation Vents Small operable vents place around foundation of houses w/ crawl spaces. Vents allow free movement of air under the home, preventing moisture buildup, which can damage the wood subflooring.
Floor Joists Beams providing structural floor support. Flooring is directly attached to these ________.
Framing The wooden skeleton of the home. Consists of the subfloor, walls, ceiling, and roof systems.
French Provincial Style A type of residential construction that incorporates a hip roof and French-influenced architectural features.
Frieze Board Wooden member fastened directly under the soffit against the sheathing. Guttering installed on roof is fastened to the ___. Function=decorative & functional; prevents wind+moisture from penetrating junction of soffit & sheathing. 1/3 parts of eave
Gable Roof Roof w/ 2 inclined planes joined over the center line of home & resting on the 2 opp. roof plates on top of the studs. Center ridge peak extends down 2 opp. sides. Roof forms triangle from the eaves to the ridge of the roof. Triangular end walls=gables.
Girder A steel beam or several wooden members fastened together (usually 2x10s, 2x12s or larger) that spans the foundation from 1 side to the other. A large beam used to support smaller beams, joists and partitions. The joists rest on the _____ for support.
Gypsum Board (Sheetrock) Large panels of gypsum material covered in treated paper that area used as finish for interior walls. The gypsum board is fastened directly to the studs and the ceiling joists.
Headers Wood to support free ends of joists, studs, or rafters over openings in frame. Forms bridge over opening(extends to top plate's bottom). Beam put perp. to floor/ceiling joists & to which studs are nailed when framing window, doorway, stairway, chimney.
Hip Roof Roof consisting of 4 inclined planes joined together to form a rectangle. Roof peaks at the center ridge but extend downward on four opposite sides. Provides overhang protection on all four sides of the structure.
HVAC Acronym for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
Insulation Material used to prevent heat loss in winter and protect against heat load in summer. Usually fiberglass material (either in rolls or loose). The material is placed in the floor, exterior walls, & ceiling of homes.
Joist A series of parallel beams which are supported by larger beams, girders or bearing walls to which the floor boards and ceiling lath, drywall or sheet rock are attached. A large wood member placed on edge horizontally to support a floor or ceiling.
NC Uniform Residential Building Code Rules, regulations, & procedures that ensure uniformity, safety, sanitation, & high-quality construction; must be followed by all builders + contractors. The building code is managed by the NC Dep. of Insurance & the NC Building Code Council.
Mullion A heavy vertical or horizontal member between adjoining window units.
Muntin Narrow strips of wood that divide the individual panes of glass in a traditional sash. In the case of "simulated divided lites," grilles resembling ___ are sandwiched between double glass panes or installed over glass' outer surface to give divided look.
On Center Placement of wood members in const process. Usually, joists, studs & rafters are placed at 16 or 24" on center to maximize strength & fastening of wallboard, plywood, & sheathing (+ make uniform nailing pattern of 4 rows for ea. covering/sheathing piece).
Piers Vertical masonry structures (usually poured concrete, cement block, or brick) that are placed inside the foundation walls to support the subflooring. These area not used w/ concrete slabs or basements.
Rafter The large, long wooden members that are fastened to the ends of the ceiling joists and ridge board. The _____form the pitch of the roof. Plywood is fastened to the ____ to form the underlay of the roof covering.
Ranch Style A 1-story home that is usually of modest size and affordability and that can be finished in siding, brick, or other types of exterior covering.
Ridge Board Long horizontal board at the highest part of the frame forming the top line of the roof (put on ridge of roof/peak of gable to support upper ends of rafters).. Rafters connect these boards to ceiling joists. Roof tree, ridge piece/plate, ridge pole.
R-Factor "Resistance to heat transfer". What insulation is rated in: higher the #, the greater the degree of insulation. Insulating "house wrap" can be put over sheathing to increase the _______ of the walls. Then, exterior siding is applied on the house wrap.
Sheathing Wooden or composite material used to cover the exterior walls & roof of home. Comes in various thicknesses & R-factors. Exterior siding & roof covering are fasted to the ______, which has a purpose to strengthen wall+add some insulation protection.
Sill Wooden member of the frame that is attached to the foundation (& is used as the nailing surface for the floor system). Also, the board/metal forming bottom side of an opening, ex: windows, doors. Must be flash/pressure-treated to aid in termite control.
Soffit Area under the eave (overhang extension) that's made of wood, aluminum, or vinyl (depends on siding type). The ______ is perpendicular to the exterior wall of building/house (projects off exterior wall at 90 degree angle). 1/3 components of eave/overhang.
Stud Vertical wooden member (2x4/6") used in framing (to support walls). ______ are fastened between the sole & top plates & form home's walls (also drywall is attached to the edge of these). Spaced 16/24" on-center along wall & run between floor & ceiling.
Sole Plate A 2"x4" used for wall resilience and partitioning. Studs rest on it. 2'x4'on which wall and partition studs rest.
Truss(es) A framework of wooden members (norm. 2x4s) that are nailed together in triangular patterns to provide support over a long span. These area used in subfloor & roof construction. Some const. methods use wooden floor _____ in place of single floor joists.
Tudor Style A type of architecture that incorporates English designs and features. These style homes can be 1 story, 2 stories, or split-level.
Top Plate The uppermost horizontal framing member of a wall, used to secure and space the wall studs and distribute the load from above.
Vapor Barrier Heavy-duty plastic installed under concrete floor slabs, under homes w/ crawl spaces, & in exterior walls to prevent moisture intrusion in structure. Can be used in addition to vents to help crawl space/wood of floor system keep dry/moist. damage free.
Victorian Style A type of architecture designed & built during Victorian era. These homes are characterized by large turrets, intricate detailing & trim work, & lg. porches. this type of architecture is once again popular in certain regions of the state & country.
Weather Stripping Foam or metal insulating material that is placed around door & window frames to aid in preventing the intrusion of air into a home. Weather stripping comes in various thicknesses and sizes to meet many applications.
Weepholes Small holes in the bottom course of brick that allow any moisture on the inside of the wall an avenue/path to the exterior. These holes also allow ventilation of the interior walls to keep it dry.
Minor A person who has not attained the statutory age of minority <18 years old.
Grade Stakes Placed in the trenches to measure and verify proper elevation and thickness of the footing prior to pouring the concrete. Once this is complete, the footing can be poured.
Rebar When constructing footings, these reinforcement rods that should be placed in the concrete to aid in temperature control and to strengthen the footing. Very important in areas w/ unstable soil or a high water table and in coastal regions.
Parging A smooth mortar finish. If only masonry block is used in the foundation wall, the exterior portions of the blocks are faced with this smooth mortar finish. These smooth walls are painted (or covered w/ stucco) to improve appearance of the foundation.
Monolithic vs. Floating Slab Monolithic- slab poured in 1 large section. The edges, made 12 in. deep, serve as a footing to support the load of the exterior walls. Floating- uses footings & a foundation wall to serve as the outside boundary inside which the concrete slab is poured.
Bridging Small wood or metal pieces put between floor joists to give them lateral rigidity. Supports & stiffens joists to prevent lateral mov. 2 types: 1. Solid (same size wood as joists, forms solid bridge between joists)2. Cross(wood in x pattern between joists)
3 Types of Framing 1. Platform framing 2. Balloon framing 3. Post-and-beam framing
Platform Framing Type of framing where the framing of the structure rests on a subfloor platform. The most common type of framing used in residential construction.
Balloon Framing Uses a single system of wall studs that runs from the foundation through the 1st and 2nd floors to the ceiling support. Method rarely used in residential construction.
Post-and-Beam Framing These members are much larger than ordinary studs and may be 4 or 6 inches square. The larger posts can be placed several ft. apart instead of 16 or 24 inches on center. Type of framing rarely used in residential construction.
2 Roof Style Varieties used in Contemporary Residential Construction 1. Gable roof (most popular roof style in NC) 2. Hip roof -In the past, gambrel and mansard roof styles were sometimes used, but never become popular, so they are rarely used on homes, but sometimes found on barns, stables, & nonresidential structures
Eave Part of roof that extends beyond the exterior wall and forms the connection between the roof and the exterior wall. Also known as overhang. Roof should extend at least 6" beyond exterior of structure, but larger the overhang more protection from sun/rain.
Tri-Level Architecture A split-level home- home style w/ staggered floor levels. Normally has 2 short stair sets: 1 running upward to BR level, 1 going downward to basement ( finished w/ living areas, laundry, & often also has a garage, & is usually level with the driveway).
3 components of an Eave (overhang) 1. Soffit 2. Fascia 3. Frieze Board
3 General Classes of Windows 1. Sliding [vertical sliding (double-hung) or horizontal sliding] 2. Swinging 3. Fixed
Sash vs. Window The part of a window that moves is called the sash. The whole shebang - sash, jambs, sill and everything else - is called a window.
Trim vs. Casing On the outside of a house, the decorative frame around a door or window is called trim, while on the inside, the same thing is called casing.
Girder vs. Header vs. Beam In wood-frame construction, a heavy horizontal member is called a girder if it's below floor level, a header if it's over a door or window, and a beam if it's pretty much anywhere else.
Sliding Door vs. Pocket Door vs. Bypassing Door Sliding door= refers only to the sliding glass variety that usually leads outside. Pocket doors=those interior doors that disappear into a slot in the wall. Bypassing doors=paired closet doors that slide past each other aren't called sliding doors either.
Wall vs. Partition Structurally speaking, a wall is always bearing, while a partition is always nonbearing. In most houses, the exterior walls & at least one wall running down the middle of the house are bearing, while all the other walls - ie, partitions - are nonbearing.
Created by: laurenk1996